The Purpose of Life: Harari, Gates, Yours Truly…

Get a GRRIP: Gates, Harari, Homo Deus, Debunked & Amplified:

Abstract: After describing a bit the work of Harari, who just sold 3 million books in China alone, we focus on what Bill Gates below sees as Harari’s main gist. Then I present my own version of the purpose of human life. I expand on the notion of raw realism, what I call GRRIP, the driver of human evolution.

***

Yuval Noah Harari, a professor at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, writes the sort of books I would have like to have written myself, because of the many statements highly compatible with my philosophy. However, the gentleman is not the deepest form of thinker there is, so I still think my writings have meaning… Moreover, he and Bill Gates, who gives his opinion below, claim that the “purpose of life” consists into serving a superior class. I sort of agree, as long as said class is superior thinking, not a tiny minority of greedy individuals… 

Harari seesm to embrace what I believe is the reality one should all embrace, to optimize collective survival and happiness GRRIP: Grave Raw Reality Inevitable Principle: Raw Reality is a Grave thing, but it can’t be be avoided, so we may as well consider it to be a Principle (just like God is a Principle of power, GRRIP has even more power, see the White Phosphorus below…) As an Israeli, Harari lives in a grave reality, and Gates, as we will see, believes hard to find a purpose in life if all children have a nice life (I agree that’s a surprising point of view, especially considering Gates views himself as charity prone, not to say charitable!)

My take on it? The purpose of life is a vast generalization of what Bill Gates is trying to say. Starting from GRRIP, I conclude that:

THE MORE WE HOLD TO DEAR LIFE, THE MORE MEANING WE ARE PROVIDED WITH! This is why people like to do dangerous & crazy things! They are addicted to meaning! (Some may say that Camus opined a bit like that in his famous “Myth of Sisyphus“. Except Sisyphus is doing a boring task, whereas human beings in full are too excited by danger to be bored; I am not exactly recommending this, to live a life of danger and terror, I just say that this is the circumstances in which our species evolved, and thus, our brains become fully functional only then, and when such an environment is provided…)

***

Harari Makes Statements I Have Made Forever:

“In the 300 years of the crucifixion of Christ to the conversion of Emperor Constantine, polytheistic Roman emperors initiated no more than four general persecutions of Christians. Local administrators and governors incited some anti-Christian violence of their own. Still, if we combine all the victims of all these persecutions, it turns out that in these three centuries the polytheistic Romans killed no more than a few thousand Christians. In contrast, over the course, of the next 1,500 years, Christians slaughtered Christians by the millions, to defend slightly different interpretations of the religion of love and compassion.”

Yuval Noah Harari, קיצור תולדות האנושות 

White Phosphorus Exploding Out Of A Shell Over Mosul, June 2, 2017. The Anti-Islamist Coalition Is Fighting Literal Abrahamism, An Intrinsically Let’s-Kill-Our-Children-For-Our-Boss religion. Hence the necessity to use pretty ugly weapons.

The reason for Christianism was to make average people into sheep so that Roman Catholic emperors and their class could terrorize and exploit the 99%. As Voltaire, himself definitively a part of the .1%, as he was personal friend of Louis XV, asserted:  

“Voltaire said about God that ‘there is no God, but don’t tell that to my servant, lest he murder me at night’. Hammurabi would have said the same about his principle of hierarchy, and Thomas Jefferson about human rights. Homo sapiens has no natural rights, just as spiders, hyenas and chimpanzees have no natural rights. But don’t tell that to our servants, lest they murder us at night.”

Yuval Noah Harari, Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind

[Nietzsche basically went lyrical on this idea already found in Voltaire, a century later. Let’s notice this in passing… So much for Friedrich’s originality…]

“Nothing captures the biological argument better than the famous New Age slogan: ‘Happiness begins within.’ Money, social status, plastic surgery, beautiful houses, powerful positions – none of these will bring you happiness. Lasting happiness comes only from serotonin, dopamine and oxytocin.” (Yuval Noah Harari, Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind.)

And right history does not just teach the future, but feeds the imagination:

“This is the best reason to learn history: not in order to predict the future, but to free yourself of the past and imagine alternative destinies. Of course this is not total freedom – we cannot avoid being shaped by the past. But some freedom is better than none.”

Yuval Noah Harari, Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow

***

Contrarily To What Harari Claims, Life Has A Scientific Meaning, However Modest:  

Of course I understand, and sort of approve, the following assertion:

“As far as we can tell from a purely scientific viewpoint, human life has absolutely no meaning. Humans are the outcome of blind evolutionary processes that operate without goal or purpose. Our actions are not part of some divine cosmic plan, and if planet earth were to blow up tomorrow morning, the universe would probably keep going about its business as usual. As far as we can tell at this point, human subjectivity would not be missed. Hence any meaning that people inscribe to their lives is just a delusion.”  (Yuval Noah Harari, Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind.)

A superior philosophical attitude requires more modesty about what the universe is really up to: suppose that it turns out we are the only civilization in the entire observable universe (as observed, so far). Would that make us delusional, if we attribute importance to ourselves? Arguably not!

“Purely scientific viewpoint”: for me, science is what is known with certainty. The purpose of life has not been studied enough to even guess what it could be to ponder some of its elements as certainties, this way or that. The purpose of life does not have any scientific meaning, but for one point which can’t be disputed: we are attached to it. All of use, but a few in extreme pain (physical or psychological).

As far as we can tell… human life has absolutely no meaning”??? Why does Harari insists life has no meaning? “Purely scientific”? So occupiers can kill the occupied in peace?

***

Bill Gates read Harari and found him to his taste. The reason why will be unveiled. In both cases, to put it rather grossly, both life off the hog (Palestinians in one case, the world planet on the other). Here is Billy Boy:

What gives our lives meaning? And what if one day, whatever gives us meaning went away—what would we do then?

I’m still thinking about those weighty questions after finishing Homo Deus, the provocative new book by Yuval Noah Harari.

Melinda and I loved Harari’s previous book, Sapiens, which tries to explain how our species came to dominate the Earth. It sparked conversations over our dinner table for weeks after we both read it…Harari’s new book is as challenging and readable as Sapiens…

Homo Deus argues that the principles that have organized society will undergo a huge shift in the 21st century… the things that have shaped society—what we measure ourselves by—have been some combination of religious rules about how to live a good life, and more earthly goals like getting rid of sickness, hunger, and war. We have organized to meet basic human needs: being happy, healthy, and in control of the environment around us. Taking these goals to their logical conclusion, Harari says humans are striving for “bliss, immortality, and divinity.”

What would the world be like if we actually achieved those things? This is not entirely idle speculation. War and violence are at historical lows and still declining. Advances in science and technology will help people live much longer and go a long way toward ending disease and hunger.

Here is Harari’s most provocative idea: As good as it sounds, achieving the dream of bliss, immortality, and divinity could be bad news for the human race. He foresees a potential future where a small number of elites upgrade themselves through biotechnology and genetic engineering, leaving the masses behind and creating the godlike species of the book’s title; where artificial intelligence “knows us better than we know ourselves”; and where these godlike elites and super-intelligent robots consider the rest of humanity to be superfluous…

He argues that humanity’s progress toward bliss, immortality, and divinity is bound to be unequal—some people will leap ahead, while many more are left behind. I agree that, as innovation accelerates, it doesn’t automatically benefit everyone. The private market in particular serves the needs of people with money and, left to its own devices, often misses the needs of the poor. But we can work to close that gap and reduce the time it takes for innovation to spread. For example, it used to take decades for lifesaving vaccines developed in the rich world to reach the poor. Now—thanks to efforts by pharmaceutical companies, foundations, and governments—there are cases where that lag time is less than a year. We should try to narrow the gap even more, but the larger point is clear: Inequity is not inevitable.

In addition, in my view, the robots-take-over scenario is not the most interesting one to think about. It is true that as artificial intelligence gets more powerful, we need to ensure that it serves humanity and not the other way around. But this is an engineering problem—what you could call the control problem. And there is not a lot to say about it, since the technology in question doesn’t exist yet.

I am more interested in what you might call the purpose problem. Assume we maintain control. What if we solved big problems like hunger and disease, and the world kept getting more peaceful: What purpose would humans have then? What challenges would we be inspired to solve?

In this version of the future, our biggest worry is not an attack by rebellious robots, but a lack of purpose.

What if a happy, healthy life was guaranteed for every child on Earth? How would that change the role parents play?

…Like every parent, I want my children to lead happy, healthy, fulfilling lives. But what if such a life was guaranteed for every child on Earth? How would that change the role parents play?

Harari does the best job I have seen of explaining the purpose problem. And he deserves credit for venturing an answer to it. He suggests that finding a new purpose requires us to develop new religion—using the word in a much broader sense than most people do, something like “organizing principles that direct our lives.”

Unfortunately, I wasn’t satisfied by his answer to the purpose question. (To be fair, I haven’t been satisfied by the answers I have seen from other smart thinkers like Ray Kurzweil and Nick Bostrom, or by my own answers either.)…”

***

Common Purpose We Found: Oppress and, or Exterminate Them, Subhumans!

I was somewhat chuckling: Harari sees a future full of plutocracy and a situation strangely reminiscent of Israeli ruling over dozens of millions of enslaved Arabs. Gates sees a future where the poor’s pain will be alleviated, if not elevated, by the gifts of the plutocrats (if we “assume we maintain control”, an interesting Freudian slip…). And where purpose is found even though so many people have stopped suffering! (No more role for parents if everybody is happy and fulfilled; apparently!)   

***

Our Purpose: Survival, now clearly more challenging than ever:

Survive plutocracy, survive climate annihilation and general roasting of the biosphere, survive nuked tipped ICBMs from young cannibalistic maniacs, etc.

Looking at history of all civilizations, one can see that the number one danger is inequality, which affects both  mental and economic performance of a civilization. Inequality grows exponentially, and affects all dimensions of humanity. Inequality does not make the common people destitute, hungry and sick, it makes them stupid and immoral.

Exponential growth of inequality is the plutocratic effect, where an oligarchy, the government of a few, ends up ruling not just from wealth, but also from satanic means (thus the word “Pluto”; hence the notion of Pluto-power: Pluto-kratos). Time and time again, only a few brains end up doing all the thinking and ordering around, resulting not just in misery, but annihilation… Because a civilization where only a few think ends up completely stupid, and lacking purpose.

The “purpose” of the human species was always survival: survival of selves, survival of others we hold dear, survival of what we are attached to. There is no reason for this to change. Actually, with a quick march to ten billion humans, plenty of states making nuke in their basement thanks to laser enrichment, rising seas, runaway greenhouse (soon!), dying plankton, encroaching deserts, etc. survival will pretty much suddenly come back on the front burner.

The ilk of Steven Pinker, supported by ephemeral statistics, claim we have reached a new age of peace. However two things: we have a world oligarchy in place from control by the Permanent Members of the Security Council. That works as long as those don’t fight each other.

2)Moreover, such ages of self-satisfaction are always those of silly minds who go explore the seabed on foot, while the tsunami is gathering strength over their horizon. The more violent the catastrophe, the greater the calm before it strikes, precisely because those who could have done something to prepare and avoid it, were bathing in self-satisfaction.

***

“Final Phase of Showdown”:

Donald Trump, made a discourse in Poland which mentioned the occupation of Poland by the Nazis and the Soviets, which brought the massacre of six millions at least, 20% of the Polish population, Trump mentioned the collaboration between Nazis and Soviets to massacre Poles: he mentioned the full stop of the Red Army in the suburbs of Warsaw, waiting for moths that the Nazis had finished massacring the Polish population of the capital. (Actually the collaboration between Nazis and Soviets was decades old,m and culminated in the Treaty of 1939, made public to try to prevent France, followed by Britain, to declare war to Hitler…)

“As the Polish experience reminds us, the defense of the west ultimately rests not only on means but also on the will of its people to prevail,” Trump said. “The fundamental question of our time is whether the West has the will to survive,” he said. “Do we have the confidence in our values to defend them at any cost? Do we have enough respect for our citizens to protect our borders? Do we have the desire and the courage to preserve our civilization in the face of those who would subvert and destroy it?

The US president, in his sharpest criticism of Moscow since taking office, urged Russia to “cease its destabilizing activities in Ukraine and elsewhere and its support for hostile regimes, including Syria and Iran,” and asserting that it must “instead join the community of responsible nations in our fight against common enemies and in defense of civilization itself.

Defending civilization? An answer was provided by the US Islamist Linda Sarsour, a famous US pseudo-feminist who called a Jihad against Trump in the name of “our beloved Muhammad“. Another was provided by the cannibal leading North Korea, as he successfully fired North Korea’s first ICBM (InterContinental Ballistic Missile).  I call him a cannibal, as Kim provides dogs with his enemies, and benefactors. As food.  Alive.

Official accounts had young cannibal Kim “feasting his eyes” on the ICBM. No doubt the perspective of millions burned wet his appetite“With a broad smile on his face,” he urged scientists to send more “big and small ‘gift packages’” to the Americans, in time for Independence Day, according to North Korea state press. Kim was quoted as saying that the “protracted showdown with the U.S. imperialists has reached its final phase.

Senior U.S. and South Korean military officials warned that North Korea’s actions threatened peace. “Self-restraint, which is a choice, is all that separates armistice and war,” Gen. Vincent K. Brooks, commander of U.S. forces in South Korea, and Gen. Lee Sun-jin, chairman of the South’s Joint Chiefs of Staff, said in a statement.

On a slightly less grim note, let’s observe that Harari teaches in Jerusalem, at the Hebrew University. In this particular context, the claim that humanity is threatened with bliss, immortality, and divinity will make at least half of the population sneer in dismay, not to say hatred. Some may well argue this is all a red herring, while the West Bank get progressively colonized, and the problem of Israeli Arabs, not solved…

In any case, the problems we have to solve quickly have never been so great, in the history of advanced life. Advanced life is going through one of its three worst mass extinctions. Arguably, advanced life is facing the worst mass extinction, ever: projections on CO2 rise and temperature rises are, potentially the largest, ever, since there are vertebrates and they wiggle.

Exciting and increasingly hot times…

Patrice Ayme’.

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20 Responses to “The Purpose of Life: Harari, Gates, Yours Truly…”

  1. SDM Says:

    Between the environmental issue and the increasing income and wealth concentration, what could not go wrong? Nuclear war seems in play as ever yet though US and China should be able to rein in the cannibal. But is there a will to do it together?

    • Patrice Ayme Says:

      China may have faked out both Trump and me. Apparently, its trade with the cannibal boosted by 40% while he was meeting with Trump in Florida! I think Xi is playing a dangerous game, so is Putin. They are basically 2 dictators who have everything going for them: giant territory for Putin (17 million square kilometers), and same for Xi, plus a roaring economy. However, Xi’s rule is less secure than it looks: he claims to chase corruption, and he is, but, many people, including his own family, IMHO, are corrupt. And Putin’s economy is bad, and getting worse (although he is probably more adulated than Xi… Because of what happened in the 1990s…)

      So Putin want sanctions lifted (they won’t be as Merkel and macron are firm that way: Macron chastised Putin at Versailles, in public…) And Xi wants to distract public opinion by war threats, brandishing the South China Sea (which was NEVER Chinese except after the Mongols conquered Vietnam, something the French corrected later…). Now Xi is also brandishing the cannibal…

      This is a dangerous game: contrarily to what the usual propaganda a la Tuchman says, the First World War was no accident, but a conspiracy of German plutocrats and Wilson and Colonel House. However, wars can, and have happened by accidents… On the other hand, the West has nothing to gain by letting cannibal play with ever more nukes…

  2. brodix Says:

    Patrice,

    The occupants of the oceans and the plants might find global warming useful.

    As for purpose, what drives us is the fact we desire, not so much whatever objects of desire we focus on. Bottom up, with top down as effect.

    Reality is a dichotomy of energy and information. Information defines energy, energy manifests information. Medium and massage. Bottom up, top down.

    We evolved a central nervous system to process the details of information and the digestive, respiratory and circulatory systems to process the energy giving our lives motivation. While our brains process information, what drives them is the blood pumping through them.

    Over the last few millennia we evolved progressively more refined governing structures, through feedback with circumstances. So effectively government is society’s central nervous system.

    Finance functions as its circulation system and while it is necessarily a public function and utility, it is no more synonymous with government, than the circulation system is synonymous with the nervous system.

    So the elemental “purpose” of this age of humanity is evolving a financial circulation mechanism that effectively serves humanity and the environment it needs to survive.

    It can’t be controlled by current forms of government, because we experience money as quantified hope and politicians live and die on how much hope they can create, thus inflating the money supply is inevitable when government controls the money supply.

    Alternatively it can’t be a private sector function either, because it will be used to harvest value out of the rest of the economy, about like a vampire harvests blood. Rather than circulating it most effectively for the rest of society.

    What we have today would be like the head and heart telling the hands and feet they don’t need quite so much blood and should work harder for what they do get. Heart attack and stroke territory.

    So there is purpose and it is staring us in the face, but we are running around blindly. Nature is cyclical, while people are linear, so while we peer down the road, it is what swirls around us that matters.

    Give it a few cycles and humanity will either learn to incorporate itself as a function of life, like the planetary central nervous system of Gaia, or collapse in its own waste. Nature’s rules. Nature rules.

    • Patrice Ayme Says:

      Occupants of the ocean are unable to mutate fast enough to adapt to changing conditions. There are exceptions: the giant CROWN OF THORN starfish loves higher temperatures and nitrates, and phosphates. So it’s multiplying like crazy, and devouring coral, accelerating the disappearance of the Great Barrier reef. Australians are testing robots to go out kill the Crown of Thorns…

      Humanity will learn if someone in humanity thinks further and deeper. It will happen in one mind first. Or a few. It always does.

      That nature is cyclical is found in Hinduism: it justified the colossally unbearable plutocracy. No reason to revolt it said: just wait. Actually nature is not cyclical. It just looks so to ants. Wait long enough, and planets escape to space, crash in suns, galaxies explode! As long as only ants can let their philosophy be known, and guide us, the future will only suit insects…

      • brodix Says:

        Patrice,

        You do focus on the negative. Yes, the late stage of any cycle is fairly rigid, but while the old is cracking, the new is hatching.

        • Patrice Ayme Says:

          I do focus on the negatives, in general, true. But the alternative to negativity is all too often total approbation accompanied by blind submission, and the annihilation of motivation… Negativity is a neglected art. When the pseudo-democrats go negative on Trump, they don’t do it well: they call him, and focus on things he is not. Real negation would entail an alternative vision, not just calling Trump a moron (which he is not)…

          • brodix Says:

            Patrice,

            My point was that you ignored the primary observation of my post, that we are socially evolving according to the same principles around which biology formed and that finance is the community’s value circulation mechanism, just as government is its central nervous system. Such that we are at the point with finance, where we were 200 hundred years ago, with government as monarchy. Privatization run amok and groundswells of civil breakdown because of it.

            Yes, life is a complete pain, especially in the late stages of any system. Where they are the most defined, are where they are the most limited. No more growth.

            Given the conclusion of all life is death, looking to the end for answers is futile. Like a sentence, the end is just punctuation. It is how well we tie together what comes before, with what comes after, that matters.

            • Patrice Ayme Says:

              Ignored your point? I do agree that there was massive financialization, and it’s terrible. Generally, that’s attributed to Thatcher and Reagan. But actually it started, IMHO, with Nixon and Kaiser, when they created the HMOs with public money.
              But the rule of money is nothing new: Francois I and Charles Quint, fighting each other, were bankrolled by Firenze and German bankers, respectively (although they were born 100 miles apart, and both French!) Francois I didn’t have a penny: he went around in his 20 million dollars clothing, with a retinue even larger than Obama, all paid by Florence…

              I did agree with your:”Clinically, what gives meaning to life is love of family and friends to ameliorate the inevitable suffering of whatever age one lives in. All this talk of higher purposes is just window dressing on enjoying the mystery of being alive with others who are kin or of kindred spirit.”

              “Purpose” does not have to be purpose of the end, of death, of which we know nothing. Purpose has to be found now, as when I answer you.

          • brodix Says:

            Patrice,

            Agreed. What drives us is that we desire, which leads us to focus it on our objects and ideals of desire. If we spend our lives chasing illusions of desire that society tells us we should, but seem empty….

            Money is the social contract, quantified and commodified. We trust the money, but not the people who give it value. Eventually we will have to come to terms with that.

          • brodix Says:

            As philosophers, we have to be objective about everything, including the power of pluto.

            People are intellectually reductionistic and money is the social contract, distilled to its most quantified and commodified form. To save society, money has to be brought back under control.
            It is a tool, not a god.

  3. Gmax Says:

    If I read you well, you are saying life is Jihad! 😉 ironic, no?

  4. Benign Says:

    Clinically, what gives meaning to life is love of family and friends to ameliorate the inevitable suffering of whatever age one lives in.

    All this talk of higher purposes is just window dressing on enjoying the mystery of being alive with others who are kin or of kindred spirit.

    Harare is a clever extrapolation of current popular ideations, including that of a superior race splitting off. But even slaves can find meaning in life, maybe even more than their masters, if the masters genes have been polluted by the Pluto gene.

    Cheers,
    Benign

    • Patrice Ayme Says:

      That’s a very good way to look at it, thanks. I wish others would share that opinion, Brodix. However, as you point out, Harari is all in the master race (and Gates at a loss from the perspective of ….equality?)

      • brodix Says:

        Thanks to Benign for an essential observation.

        The fallacy of monotheism is a spiritual absolute would be the essence from which we rise, not an ideal from which we fell. The new born babe, not the wise old man.

        As such Judaism appears to be falling victim to the old saying, “Be careful what you pray for, you might get it.” With regards to the return to Israel.
        As the outsider, they had the advantage of observation, without the responsibility of control. Now they just have an echo chamber.

  5. kevishaw Says:

    PA, yours is fun analysis, but it must take hours or days to develop.
    How do you leave time for sleep?

    About Bill Gates:
    No wonder this feeble oaf is not able to steer his philanthropy (tax avoidance) to a better purpose. He says the world is getting more peaceful? I see a different trend: N.Korea previously did not have nukes; not long ago Syria was once a country. Wake up people, poverty is violence, and polar warming is violence against less wealthy coastal humans. And not to mention the rise of alternative facts, as violence against the truth.

    Bill Gates opines that the market “often misses the needs of the poor”? What about the percentage humanity that is not materially poor, but the market misses their needs too? (see: health care system USA). Or maybe focus on the phrase, “often misses,” as if this is by chance. To me it appears more likely, the market economy in places such as the USA, is designed specifically to facilitate the die-off the poor without their knowledge.

    Mr. Gates says, “we can work to close that gap”. Who is the “we” – he has a mouse in his pocket? So what is his timeline for this, if not right away? And he believes the bad-side effects of artificial intelligence is an engineering problem. I would say no, it’s a problem of political will. Therefore I hear his lament as a veiled call for the rich to remain silent and to ignore their own political power in attempting to change the trajectory. After all, it’s responsibility of those nameless engineers to figure out the solution, right?

    Finally Mr. Gates says, “there is not a lot to say” about AI taking over,
    and not to worry, because the technology doesn’t exist yet. (another call to remain silent).

    Please PA, keep pointing, shouting, and punching in the right directions, for the benefit of all our minds. I do appreciate Brodix viewpoint on humankind systems, above. But I am just barely hopeful that these governing systems can be used, to enable us to evolve ahead of the heat.

    • Patrice Ayme Says:

      Kevishaw: Thanks, yours is an excellent analysis. Yes, I noticed Bill Gates “we can work to close that gap”. “We” like the conspiracy of the rich? “We” like those Bill Gates make work? Some, on the left, and not just the left, say Bill Gates gave already 30 billion dollars, and they are full of admiration. Weirdly, though, he is ever richer…
      Thanks for encouraging me.

      I had some family members kindly visiting from Australia. They don’t read anything I write, but spend hours reading Marc Zuckerberg from Facebook, and they shared with us his political opinions on the great state of Alaska (a petrodollar state with 600,000 people and a giant territory, nearly as large as the American West…) They were singing the praises of Zuckerberg’s obviously flawed and oriented propaganda, and how dumb his detractors were by thinking to tax the rich (that’s the gist they got from Zuckerberg’s prose). It sounded as another call to be silent, as you say.

      I told them I was writing a succinct version of the refugee crisis which brought Rome down, but they clearly knew not enough history to ask even one question. I may as well have described Zulu politics.

      I can write all I want, like a crazy squirrel burying nuts all over: as I am banned from places like NYT, Guardian, Daily Kos, European Tribune, and several philosophy sites, my readership does not augment as it did before the censorship, around 2009… European Tribune, a site financed by bankers had banned me specifically for suggesting some bankers had financed Hitler (I had the names…) They retorted that an Internet search showed only me being of this opinion… 😉

  6. De Brunet D'Ambiallet Says:

    Harari and Gates are superficial thinkers with selfish agendas. That much is clear. Thanks for shoving their faces in their own pee…

    • Patrice Ayme Says:

      You’re welcome. (I won’t put it as harshly, though: some of what Harari says, which many of the commons would hate, I pretty much long said, so…)

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