Catholicism, Islamism: Better Under Secularism’s Boot


Christianism and Islamism are not all bad. However, directly, or indirectly, those ideologies of hyper violent militarized oligarchies mightily contributed to bury civilization under hordes of bloody invaders, and then to kill innovation through lethal cretinization. Unfortunately, most people have no idea of the history, and mix their racist notions with imagined bias found mostly in their own brains rather than the reality of what happened.

Rachel Laudenslager Hunt wrote: …secular authorities trying to co-opt religion in order to increase their power. It’s a tale as old as time.

Patrice Ayme: Dear Rachel: Starting with Roman emperor Constantine following theological tricks of Diocletian, the Roman emperors INVENTED Catholicism (thus indirectly Islam) to rule theocratically…

The Roman Catholic emperors got the fascist theocratic ball rolling, especially Theodosius in 380-381 CE… Those murderous autocrats are the ones who invented the basic set-up embraced by the Islamists three centuries later… Little known, there were direct relations between Catholic authorities and Muhammad, including gifts of slaves from former to latter!

I was there. Isfahan, Iran. Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque (Persian: مسجد شیخ لطف الله‎). The dome is 32 meters high. One of the world’s most beautiful places (a giant place surrounded by superb mosques). The cretinous ban of some interpretation of Islam against representing any biological creations (lest that offend Allah for copyright infringement, apparently) has led to incredibly magnificent art, and even mathematical discoveries…)

Rachel Laudenslager Hunt Says:

“Wow. That’s fascinating. I didn’t know the specifics of the history, but the big picture seems pretty simple. Power hungry maniacs will do and say anything to solidify their control, and religion is an EASY way to do that.”

And didn’t Chinese and Egyptian Emperors also claim divine authority?

Patrice Ayme: All ruling classes have always claimed divine authority. The Indians did it, the Celts did it… But they did it with more or less ferocity. The Romans, who, under the Republic, had the highest moral authority anywhere, cancelled the Celtic and Punic religions, because those used human sacrifices…

The ruling classes are unnatural, anti-human by definition because humanity was created free by biology itself. So the ruling oligarchies invented religions, which tie together the people’s brains in knots. They have to: optimal rule requires to rule over minds, not just bodies. The slave without chains does not rust and is low maintenance, self-managed. Divinization of leaders will always start from secular regimes, as happened in Rome with the emperors.

Even in Venezuela right now, Chavez is becoming god, at least for the ruling class, although the country, society, health care, economy, standard of civilization are all collapsing….

Islam is an imitation of imperial Christianism, and very explicitly so. The archbishop of Alexandria sent two slaves to Muhammad, one of them, a highly educated woman he married and had the immense pleasure to get his first (and last) son with. Jews also promoted Muhammad initially… before he turned against them with a vengeance.

Roman emperors, starting around 70 CE, manufactured what they called, by 321 CE, “Orthodox Catholicism” (Common Opinion Universalism, in Greek). By the Nicaea Council, emperor (and “saint”) Constantine had established his theocracy, which became explicitly murderous against non-believers by 381 CE, under emperor Theodosius I. The empire collapsed by 395 CE, immediately after Theodosius crushed an anti-Christian civil war.

After the empire collapsed, the Franks rebuilt it with a TOLERANT variant of Catholicism, which tolerated all religions, in the old Roman style. However the Muslims imitated what enabled RAIDING (Muhammad said so explicitly, gloating they were going to raid into the rich empires to the north for the first time in 1,000 years…)

The end result was that what was for millennia the world’s wealthiest region, was durably turned into the poorest: remove the oil, what’s left?

Half of my family is from Algeria, BTW… It’s not as if I were talking from books alone. I was there and lived through it. Now, of course, the modern little plot with Fundamental Christianity is recent (1954) and the little plot with Fundamental Wahhabism a bit earlier, but from the same period (1945). This was all amplified by French intellectuals in charge of creating the system of thought of Global US Plutocracy. Yes, even Sartre, De Beauvoir (the latter was definitively a Nazi). A philosophical mood so-called “French Theory” led to the disintegration of the supremacy of mental superiority by claiming all cultures were equal (that mood got launched by the likes of anthropologist Levy-Strauss).

Out of it came Islamophilia, and the outrageous claim that Islamophobia was racism. My family (on both sides) had polite theologicophobia for generations, but is definitively not racist (various so-called “races” are found within)… catholicism ravaged Roman civilization in the Fourth Century, a deadly pandemic of mental degeneracy…

Partha, another reader originally from India pointed out: “Islam is quick to use any means available for warfare.” indeed. At least for the Sunni Islam, especially in its extreme version, Wahhabism, and for the Shia (“the Party”), Islam is a war religion. Anybody who spent three honnest hours reading the Qur’an will get to that conclusion:
https://patriceayme.wordpress.com/2009/06/22/some-violence-in-holy-quran/

Thus the mood of proper fundamental Islamists is violent. This is why there is more than 100 variants of Islam. I grew up exposed to thoroughly non-violent types of Islam… Which barred Wahhabists and their ilk of ANY ACCESS to the region since times immemorial…
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibadi_Islam

***

I would turn things around. Catholicism tried to impose its partly demented moral code, killing dozens of millions in the process. During the European Middle Ages, having Catholicophobia was a sure ticket to assassination or execution. That was all the stranger, as the Secular Roman law was the only law of the civilized parts; Saint Louis, who admitted in writing that nothing would please him more than planting a knife in the belly of a Jew, or an Atheist… and then twist it… had to sadly admit he couldn’t do this, as it was against the LAW (the Roman Secular law, which by the time of Saint Louis was 19 centuries old…)

So here is my practical recommendation: any elected politician in the West who says that Sharia should be applied instead of Republican Secular law, should be immediately impeached. 

All and any religions have positive aspects. Secular Republican law enables to block their negative aspects and foster the positive ones: what is there not to like?

Patrice Ayme

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31 Responses to “Catholicism, Islamism: Better Under Secularism’s Boot”

  1. brodix Says:

    Parice,

    Then there is the other Beast.

    The history of finance being used as a predatory feedback loop, rather than a system of accounting to enable mass societies to function;

    https://www.nakedcapitalism.com/2020/09/michael-hudson-debt-land-and-money-from-polanyi-to-the-new-economic-archaeology.html

    If direct, top down rule doesn’t work, just suck the blood out of society through its economic circulation systems.
    “Let them eat cake.”

    Like

    • Patrice Ayme Says:

      Let then wash my hair! [Nancy Pelosi]
      The central bank systems, as they exist, are the church of Mammon.
      Really: they give money to the wealthiest, so that the wealthiest gets wealthier…
      This is why power, and, in particular, wealth, go exponential

      Like

  2. pshakkottai Says:

    Islam forbids all Science and arts except calligraphy and geometric designs as though they are not art. In the rest they follow iconoclasm (even Christianity used to before reformation in Europe even though in India the Portuguese conducted inquisitions.The French were too civilized and lost to the British.)
    Islam destroyed all Temples, all Buddism, all Universities and libraries and has continued to Bamiyan Buddhas, Greek Temples in Smyrna, The Sun temple in Kashmir and drove all Hindus out of a State of India.

    Like

    • Patrice Ayme Says:

      Indeed. The French were too civilized thus lost to the British: best description of what happened in North America, when France lost Canada, and then Louisiana, where there was no slavery in either, and Native Americans were not genocidized. Same in India. Civilization in excess can kill!

      Like

  3. Paul Handover Says:

    As a confirmed atheist, brought up by atheist parents, this is all perfect common sense!

    Like

    • Patrice Ayme Says:

      Thanks, Paul!
      Funny thing is that I saw, and grew up with, Islam variants which are both highly orthodox (the Ibadis were established before Sunnis and Shia!!!!!!!!!!) and extremely compatible with my discourses and practices… In particular, the Ibadis are highly skeptical about the Qur’an itself, let alone the Hadith… hence the 97% nude Muslims females of West Africa I used to know…

      Like

  4. Paul Handover Says:

    Me again. The closing paragraphs of an essay in today’s Naked Capitalism:

    Despite several recent attempts to jumpstart negotiations, Covid-19 relief talks between the White House, Schumer, Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.), and House Speaker Nancy Pelosi (D-Calif.) have been stalled for weeks as tens of millions of Americans attempt to meet basic needs with drastically reduced incomes.

    “Nearly 30 million Americans are going hungry,” Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.) tweetedFriday. “Meanwhile, three members of the Walton family grew their wealth by $3.7 billion in a single day. Mitch McConnell and the do-nothing Republican Senate refuse to help the working class. Pathetic.”

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    • Patrice Ayme Says:

      Well, president Trump has asked repeatedly the US Congress to free immediately US $300 BILLION dollars which have been allocated to COVID stimulus, but not distributed by Congress. Trump is toying with the perspective to use an executive order to do so.

      It’s illegal to do… Except if it can be presented as a national emergency… which it is…

      A larger three TRILLION dollars stimulus was blocked by Trump because corrupt Nancy wants to use it to remedy a one TRILLION dollar chronic deficit in Blue States, mostly New York, Illinois, California. Trump righly points out that should not be part of the deficit.

      I am a registered Democrat, always has been, in a burning smoke out dwelling, HEPA air filters running 100%… when we don’t experience black outs, with record temperatures out side (112 F to day in Los Angeles, 45 Celsius…)

      Who brought us that? California has been governed by Democrats for at least a decade. Obama brought us fracking: below my window I can see Hiroshima trains full of fracked compressed gas, thanks Obama (Trump is trying to take credit, but Obama did it; under Trump, fracking, Obama’s great oeuvre, is collapsing…)

      Democrats refused to take care of the forests… They have only money for their friends…

      Dems rolled out the Impeachment last year, to break the deal with Trump to break the tech monopolies… Trump Justice department is going at it alone… I am used to get notices from “social media” monopolies that some 22 year old with a liberal art degree has decide i should be banned until May 7, 2021… (As I did yesterday…)

      Last not least: I voted for Sanders twice. He lost my respect when he deliberately lost the debate with war criminal Biden. Twice the moderators brought up the role of Biden in the invasion of Iraq, twice Sanders refused to answer. Now a guy who refuses to go after a war criminal is himself criminal. If Sanders had brought up Iraq, Biden was finished. And I would have voted for Sanders in November. But now of course I know that was a mistake: Sanders, I found out, and I would not have found otherwise, is accomplice of the global plutocrats behind Biden.

      Like

      • Paul Handover Says:

        Patrice, I want to return to Biden vs Trump. And I want to do it based on an interview that was had with Pete Souza who was the official photographer to both Pres. Reagan and Pres. Obama. The tail end of the interview finishes with this:
        oooo
        I don’t think I’m bringing politics into it at all. I am not currently photographing the president of the United States. And I haven’t, other than on inauguration day [in 2017]. I’m just comparing and contrasting the two presidents that I have photographed from the inside, how they upheld the dignity of the office and comparing that to what we have today.

        I have the right to speak out when I see wrong. And I see wrong, so I’m speaking out.

        It’s not a political thing. I wouldn’t be doing this if Jeb Bush, or John Kasich, or John McCain or Mitt Romney was president. I may still disagree with their policies, but they understand what it means to be empathetic and compassionate, and what it means to do the best job you can on behalf of all people – including the ones who didn’t vote for them.

        It’s as simple as that. I’m an American citizen, and I have the right to speak out when I see wrong. And I see wrong, so I’m speaking out. I think Trump is damaging the country and its people, and to those who say I shouldn’t be speaking out, well, I think they’re wrong. I’m going to be on the right side of history and I believe in the institution of the presidency, and that the person in that office needs to uphold the dignity of the institution, and that [Trump] isn’t doing it.
        oooo

        Your reaction?

        Like

        • Patrice Ayme Says:

          My reaction is: where are the specific complaints? Does Trump tweet too much? What does Souza, a well-known celebrity, call ‘the country”? The Washington-New York-Silicon Valley monopolistic elite? I have lived in these three places. That gentleman belongs to the Washington elite of the Deep State. My nine year daughter was thrown out of her school because the hereditary plutocratic financier of FACTCHECK.ORG hates me.

          How do the $15 an hour minimum wage of Trump’s USMCA damage the country? How does the executive order on drug damage the country? Official, in depth economic numbers on the economy came from the Census Bureau today: Trump presided over the best economy… ever… since they have stats.

          Obama did “signature strikes”, killing people, up to hundred, by drone, just because they gathered in countries US was not even at war with (Yemen, for example). And Obama did F R A C K I N G, massive. Biden connived to invade Iraq, he just didn’t vote for it.
          https://patriceayme.wordpress.com/2020/01/01/is-nancy-pelosi-a-self-indicting-war-criminal/

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          • Paul Handover Says:

            Thank you, Patrice. And thank you for a prompt reply. I wish I had the in-depth knowledge of this country that you clearly have. Is your daughter now at a better and different school? I am sure she is. The enormity of the campaign to destroy Pres. Trump is huge. Is it orchestrated?

            Like

          • Patrice Ayme Says:

            I have written hundreds of essay about GLOBAL PLUTOCRACY. Global plutocracy is orchestrating a huge effort against Trump (and the USA; the anti-US propaganda in Europe is horrendous right now). GLOBAL PLUTOS hate Trump, because he is a traitor to plutocracy. I feel like penning a quick book on this, as my hundreds of essay have stayed below the global radar.

            Feel welcome to recommend by site to any of the Trump haters and people who do not know if the mentally challenged Biden is not better… There are two million words on my site… And many of Obama’s pretty talk were actually penned by yours truly…

            BTW, I may need your advice about how to publish…

            Like

          • Paul Handover Says:

            Let’s go offline. In other words, email me. Re publishing.

            Like

          • Patrice Ayme Says:

            Ok, I gave more details in the preceding comment… Because in a way, well, my essay on climbing is also going to come out, an extension of the comment I sent to your site. Solo climbers don’t scare easy…

            Like

          • Patrice Ayme Says:

            In other words, I re-wrote the comment…

            Like

          • Patrice Ayme Says:

            My daughter was thrown out of the private Franco-American school in Berkeley she was going to, thanks to the enraged Franco-American-Australian (!) hereditary tycoon who had taken great umbrage. These people lead the world, and “FACTCHECK”! It was an enormous trauma for my little girl, She lost all her friends, all the more as parents were told to socially distance from us (9 months before COVID!). She is also a French citizen and was deprived of her school and a french education she had enjoyed since age 4.

            We didn’t sue, because all it would have done was to attract the rage and punishment of the French government (I observed this directly when I talked to French authorities)… and we are already marked for social death in Silicon Valley and other places I can’t even mention, after two Supreme Court wins… In other matters…

            My daughter is now going to an American PUBLIC school, where listening to the completely insane Mr. Jacob, a foaming racist hater, was an assignment. Also taking part in BLM demonstrations was informally assigned by the preceding Principal. Finally this is the exact location school where Kamala Harris was so proud to have been bused away from, because only inferior low colored lives go there, and Kamala wanted to be bused among the whites. Yes, we are in Berkeley..

            In the house where Kamala lived, there is now a PRIVATE school. Poor little Kamala! Her big house of poor little rich girl is now a school! Why so many private schools? Because public schools are junk. All the plutocrats’ children, including the Obama children, went or go to hyper expensive private schools… Obama’s oldest daughter is now at harvard, where she “dates” the son of a hyper wealthy British financier…
            https://patriceayme.wordpress.com/2015/04/03/plutocratic-universities-are-not-universal/

            Like

          • brodix Says:

            As I’ve often told my own daughter, It’s all educational.
            Nowadays, she is teaching special needs high schoolers in Memphis. It’s very educational…..

            Like

        • brodix Says:

          Patrice,
          I reply to your thread with Paul, I realized at a fairly early age that I was learning far more from my own reading, than i was at school, which created the sense its primary function was to train me to sit at a desk. Since I had no desire to spend my life behind a desk…..
          Hopefully you can use this as an opportunity to teach your daughter when the line is being crossed from useful education, to social indoctrination and how to steer towards th edge of the herd, so when it is running for the cliff, one doesn’t just get trampled in trying to avoid running off it. Given Pauls’ thesis about Trump, relative to the others, it doesn’t seem to matter if the dear leader is a sociopath, just so long as he can conduct himself correctly in polite company. Most people live on the surface of the bubble and hate pins….

          Like

          • Patrice Ayme Says:

            Encouraging, especially in the light that fortunately my daughter is a book worm… in the Dune sense of worm, a gigantic creature swallowing up to a book a day, or more… I don’t know how she does it…

            I enjoy a lot the zoom teaching: she is at home, and we interact all the time. Frankly, at least as far as not following the herd, I am number one, as Trump would say… She saw the disaster at her preceding school, and paid the price, so she has become pretty canny with politics. She is holding her tongue when eminent vociferous racists are presented by the school as pillars of wisdom… And appear in videos she is forced to listen to.

            But this brings lots of questions about her education, looking forward. Fortunately as she is French (in all ways), there is always that solution… if the situation gets any worse… It could take us only days to flee to France (her passports have expired, but, at the limit we don’t need any!)

            Like

  5. aldariontelcontar Says:

    Sem:

    I would say it is dangerous to single out religions like this. Yes, Islam and some eras of Christianity did cause mass bloodshed and then kill innovation. But Communism – a secular, militantly atheistic ideology – easily matches Islam (and thus also Christianity) in both bloodshed and its hostility towards innovation. You see, innovation requires truth, and various forms of Marxism (such as Communism and Progressivism) are inherently hostile towards truth, as all totalitarian ideologies are. Church was known to finance scientists – Communists did so only if it helped promote their ideology.

    So it is not problem in religion being religion, I think. Problem is in religion being “ideology of a better world”. If you believe that your ideology will automatically bring better world (as all ideologies I have mentioned – Christianity, Islam, Marxism – believe), then anyone disagreeing with you is an enemy of this better world. This then means that people who disagree are not just wrong, but dangerous and evil. Which means they have to be eliminated by any means necessary – which then leads to authoritharianism / totalitarianism and, eventually, genocide.

    Duos:

    Humanity is not “created free”. Great apes which are much more primitive compared to humans – such as chimpanzees – live in hierarchically organized groups and engage in wars of conquest. However, rulers in a natural hierarchy always have to look out for challenges from below – and they naturally look to minimize possibility of a challenge. That is in fact why democracy was invented: we are ruled by a single group of oligarchs, but we can delude ourselves to believe we are not because we can choose between two groups of clowns. As a consequence, we do not challenge the actual ruling class (and those who do are relatively easy to stamp out). Conclusion: democracy is (ironically, perhaps, but not surprisingly) hostile to freedom. It leads to big state, big government and authoritharianism, while confusing the people just enough so they do not know how to respond. In a monarchy at least you have an obvious target – a monarch – who can be opposed and forced to negotiate. In modern representative democracy, actual centres of power are way out of reach.

    Tres:

    Problem with Catholicism specifically I think is that Pope, after Western Roman Empire collapsed, developed secular ambitions. There was no longer Roman Empire to protect – and limit – him, and with collapse of the West into barbarian kingdoms, Christianity was no longer just Roman religion. So Pope could entertain the idea of being above secular authorithies, which is what he attempted to do with his charade of “crowning” Charlemagne. He also used this to elevate himself above other patriarchs.

    Like

    • Patrice Ayme Says:

      Dear Aldariontelcontar: Thanks for the long and pensive comment! First things first, and that’s the First Amendment to the Constitution, so if I single out all and any religion, from militarism to excessive secularism (there is such a thing!), to Aztec religion, it should not be “dangerous”. If it is “dangerous” there is something seriously wrong…
      “Marxism” is certainly a (secular) religion: it re-ligare, tie (people) again!
      https://patriceayme.wordpress.com/2015/11/27/can-a-religion-be-abject/

      As I explained in many essays, Catholicism was IMPOSED by Roman Emperors, and was an instrument of terror, right from the start.
      https://patriceayme.wordpress.com/2018/03/25/emperor-constantine-christian-terrorist-325-ce-fall-of-rome-part-x/

      After its Roman emperors sponsorship weakened, because the Roman empire disappeared in the West and nearly so in the Orient, from invasions, the Popes were powerless to prevent the rebuilding of Catholicism by the Franks, in the Frankish way. (Roughly 500 CE to 1100 CE.) Starting with the first Crusade, Popes regained some powers… but mostly as tools of the Feudal overlords…

      Liked by 1 person

    • Patrice Ayme Says:

      What you mean by “democracy” is what people nowadays mean by “democracy”, that is ELECTIVE REPRESENTATIVE OLIGARCHY.

      The ancient Greeks would have laughed. Real democracy is what is called DIRECT DEMOCRACY. Athens, but little known, even ROME, practiced it to a great extent.
      https://patriceayme.wordpress.com/2014/09/28/aristotle-destroyed-democracy/

      Liked by 1 person

      • aldariontelcontar Says:

        That is what I was talking about, yes.

        Real democracy is “system where people have power”. Byzantine Empire for example was much more deeply democratic than most modern-day “democratic” states, because Emperors were sensitive to needs of their populace: both population of Constantinople and soliders of themes (themselves deeply connected to provincial rural populace) were highly politically engaged, and more than ready to take off head of an Emperor who disappointed them. I may write more about it, but if you want details, read Anthony Kaldellis – “The Byzantine Republic”.

        As for Athens, that is true – but Athenian democracy lasted only for a short time, and could not be implemented in anything larger than a polis anyway.

        Like

        • Patrice Ayme Says:

          The switch to a hoplite army under king Servius Tullius made Rome, similarly to what happened in Athens, a real direct democracy: the army was made of average citizens. In Athens, ephebes, upon graduating, where all offered the basic hoplite equipment, by the state. This created “hoplite democracy”. The city-states around Rome kept on depending upon non hoplite cavalry and aristocracy for a while, and that gave Rome a considerable military advantage…

          Liked by 1 person

    • Patrice Ayme Says:

      It’s true, cogent and significant, as you point out, that Charlemagne was furious that the Pope crowned him emperor. Charles wanted it done in the old Roman way …and was negotiating with the empress in Constantinople and the powers that be there, including the Senate… to do so… But that one the one feeble successful Papal coup in six centuries…
      Nothing like mandating all religious establishments to teach secularly (a Frankish law instituted before the reign of Charlemagne)

      Liked by 1 person

    • Patrice Ayme Says:

      It’s true, cogent and significant, as you point out, that Charlemagne was furious that the Pope crowned him emperor. Charles wanted it done in the old Roman way …and was negotiating with the empress in Constantinople and the powers that be there, including the Senate… to do so… But that one was the one and only feeble successful Papal coup in six centuries…
      Nothing like mandating all religious establishments to teach secularly (a Frankish law instituted before the reign of Charlemagne)

      Liked by 1 person

  6. brodix Says:

    Wasn’t Stalin a seminarian, intending on joining the priesthood?

    Like

    • Patrice Ayme Says:

      Stalin’s mother left her abusive impoverished husband and lived in rented rooms with her son, cleaning houses… From wikipedia:

      In August 1894, Stalin enrolled in the Spiritual Seminary in Tiflis, enabled by a scholarship that allowed him to study at a reduced rate.[27] He joined 600 trainee priests who boarded at the institution.[28] Stalin was again academically successful and gained high grades.[29] He continued writing poetry; five of his poems were published under the pseudonym of “Soselo” in Ilia Chavchavadze’s newspaper Iveria (‘Georgia’).[30] Thematically, the poems dealt with topics like nature, land, and patriotism.[31] According to Stalin’s biographer Simon Sebag Montefiore, they became “minor Georgian classics”[32] and were included in various anthologies of Georgian poetry over the coming years.[32] As he grew older, Stalin lost interest in priestly studies, his grades dropped,[33] and he was repeatedly confined to a cell for his rebellious behaviour.[34] The seminary’s journal noted that he declared himself an atheist, stalked out of prayers and refused to doff his hat to monks.[35]

      Stalin joined a forbidden book club at the school;[36] he was particularly influenced by Nikolay Chernyshevsky’s 1863 pro-revolutionary novel What Is To Be Done?.[37] Another influential text was Alexander Kazbegi’s The Patricide, with Stalin adopting the nickname “Koba” from that of the book’s bandit protagonist.[38] He also read Capital, the 1867 book by German sociological theorist Karl Marx.[39] Stalin devoted himself to Marx’s socio-political theory, Marxism,[40] which was then on the rise in Georgia, one of various forms of socialism opposed to the empire’s governing tsarist authorities.[41] At night, he attended secret workers’ meetings[42] and was introduced to Silibistro “Silva” Jibladze, the Marxist founder of Mesame Dasi (“Third Group”), a Georgian socialist group.[43] Stalin left the seminary in April 1899 and never returned.[44]

      Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party: 1899–1904
      In October 1899, Stalin began work as a meteorologist at a Tiflis observatory.[45] He attracted a group of supporters through his classes in socialist theory[46] and co-organised a secret workers’ mass meeting for May Day 1900,[47] at which he successfully encouraged many of the men to take strike action.[48] By this point, the empire’s secret police — the Okhrana — were aware of Stalin’s activities within Tiflis’ revolutionary milieu.[48] They attempted to arrest him in March 1901, but he escaped and went into hiding,[49] living off the donations of friends and sympathisers.[50] Remaining underground, he helped plan a demonstration for May Day 1901, in which 3,000 marchers clashed with the authorities.[51] He continued to evade arrest by using aliases and sleeping in different apartments.[52] In November 1901, he was elected to the Tiflis Committee of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP), a Marxist party founded in 1898.[53]

      That month, Stalin travelled to the port city of Batumi.[54] His militant rhetoric proved divisive among the city’s Marxists, some of whom suspected that he might be an agent provocateur working for the government.[55] He found employment at the Rothschild refinery storehouse, where he co-organised two workers’ strikes.[56] After several strike leaders were arrested, he co-organised a mass public demonstration which led to the storming of the prison; troops fired upon the demonstrators, 13 of whom were killed.[57] Stalin organised another mass demonstration on the day of their funeral,[58] before being arrested in April 1902.[59] Held first in Batumi Prison[60] and then Kutaisi Prison,[61] in mid-1903 Stalin was sentenced to three years of exile in eastern Siberia.[62]

      Stalin left Batumi in October, arriving at the small Siberian town of Novaya Uda in late November 1903.[63] There, he lived in a two-room peasant’s house, sleeping in the building’s larder.[64] He made two escape attempts; on the first he made it to Balagansk before returning due to frostbite.[65] His second attempt, in January 1904, was successful and he made it to Tiflis.[66] There, he co-edited a Georgian Marxist newspaper, Proletariatis Brdzola (“Proletarian Struggle”), with Philip Makharadze.[67] He called for the Georgian Marxist movement to split from its Russian counterpart, resulting in several RSDLP members accusing him of holding views contrary to the ethos of Marxist internationalism and calling for his expulsion from the party; he soon recanted his opinions.[68] During his exile, the RSDLP had split between Vladimir Lenin’s “Bolsheviks” and Julius Martov’s “Mensheviks”.[69] Stalin detested many of the Mensheviks in Georgia and aligned himself with the Bolsheviks.[70] Although Stalin established a Bolshevik stronghold in the mining town of Chiatura,[71] Bolshevism remained a minority force in the Menshevik-dominated Georgian revolutionary scene.[72]

      ….

      In April 1906, Stalin attended the RSDLP Fourth Congress in Stockholm; this was his first trip outside the Russian Empire.[88] At the conference, the RSDLP—then led by its Menshevik majority—agreed that it would not raise funds using armed robbery.[89] Lenin and Stalin disagreed with this decision[90] and later privately discussed how they could continue the robberies for the Bolshevik cause.[91]

      Stalin married Kato Svanidze in a church ceremony at Senaki in July 1906.[92] In March 1907 she bore a son, Yakov.[93] By that year—according to the historian Robert Service—Stalin had established himself as “Georgia’s leading Bolshevik”.[94] He attended the Fifth RSDLP Congress, held in London in May–June 1907.[95] After returning to Tiflis, Stalin organised the robbing of a large delivery of money to the Imperial Bank in June 1907. His gang ambushed the armed convoy in Yerevan Square with gunfire and home-made bombs. Around 40 people were killed, but all of his gang escaped alive.[96] After the heist, Stalin settled in Baku with his wife and son.[97] There, Mensheviks confronted Stalin about the robbery and voted to expel him from the RSDLP, but he took no notice of them.[98]

      A mugshot of Stalin made in 1911 by the Tsarist secret police.
      In Baku, Stalin secured Bolshevik domination of the local RSDLP branch[99] and edited two Bolshevik newspapers, Bakinsky Proletary and Gudok (“Whistle”).[100] In August 1907, he attended the Seventh Congress of the Second International—an international socialist organisation—in Stuttgart, Germany.[101] In November 1907, his wife died of typhus,

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      • brodix Says:

        Thanks.
        My thought has been that monotheism tends to equate with absolutism, so the movements seeking to replace it still fall in that shadow of assuming their ideals to be absolute and beyond question.
        The reality is the absolute is balanced by the infinite. So this tendency to see everything in terms of the singular and essential overlooks the context. Nodes in infinite networks, organisms in ecosystems. Even the effort to model the entire universe as one entity has now morphed into multiverses. Still seeing them in terms of singular entities and overlooking the underlaying, upward dynamic and feedback loops which generate these framing devices.
        So the end result of communism became a fear based bureaucracy, as after the cultural entity was overthrown, the entity to replace it became the featureless structure of the bureaucracy, based on fear, as the one emotion that can control everyone.

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        • Patrice Ayme Says:

          The Roman emperors, starting with Diocletian, wanted to be more absolute than ever, so they created a God, symbol of absolute power, absolute goodness and beauty, thus imposing those values as supreme. And then they became God’s soldiers, thus absolutely violent. After all, God kills…

          Like

          • brodix Says:

            Monolithic idealism in a binary cycle.
            Energy drives, order steers. If the order presumes to crush the organic drive, rather than guide it, it eventually becomes a scab that will be shed.

            Like

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