Finally! The most surprising discovery of the last two centuries in science was not the Quantum (that had been sort of anticipated by the Greeks who thought they had demonstrated the existence of atoms, literally non-divisibles; the photon is the atom of light…), nor was it DNA (the discovery that there are laws of inheritance is hundreds of thousands of years old, and make ever more specific with time, as humans learn to breed characteristics, etc.).

NONLOCALITY was an enormous surprise because it contradicted everything… even mathematics, come to think of it deeply enough.

The old approach, which had become crystallized by the ancient Greeks was that the world was made of indivisibles, atoms in nature, points in mathematics. So granular nature and extreme precision.

As my own dad once told me on his own, while I described the Quantum to him, in English translation:”the idea that one can get ever smaller and nothing changes can’t possibly be true”.

What **NONLOCALITY says is that if one gets small enough, one ends up somewhere else!**

**This shatters the expectation that smaller is no different. Instead:**

**1) smaller is somewhere else.**

**2) Properties and matter as we expect it, do not exist at a small enough scale. REALIZATION NEEDS LOCALIZATION. **

(the mathematics of QM requires this. Einstein and company objected to the notion, as they put it, that the “*Moon does not exist if no one looks at it*”… That was an exaggerated objection; there is a qualitative difference between a very small object and a very large one… At least in SQPR; the drawing from the Swedish Academia is also exaggerated… However, it makes the general idea, clear, in first approximation:

*4 October 2022*

*The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences** has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Physics 2022 to*

*Alain Aspect*

*Université Paris-Saclay and*

*École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France*

*John F. Clauser*

*J.F. Clauser & Assoc., Walnut Creek, CA, USA*

*Anton Zeilinger*

*University of Vienna, Austria*

*“for experiments with entangled photons, establishing the violation of Bell inequalities and pioneering quantum information science”*

*Entangled states – from theory to technology*

*Alain Aspect, John Clauser and Anton Zeilinger have each conducted groundbreaking experiments using entangled quantum states, where two particles behave like a single unit even when they are separated. Their results have cleared the way for new technology based upon quantum information.*

*The ineffable effects of quantum mechanics are starting to find applications. There is now a large field of research that includes quantum computers, quantum networks and secure quantum encrypted communication.*

*One** key factor in this development is how quantum mechanics allows two or more particles to exist in what is called an entangled state**. What happens to one of the particles in an entangled pair determines what happens to the other particle, even if they are far apart.*

*For a long time, the question was whether the correlation was because the particles in an entangled pair contained hidden variables, instructions that tell them which result they should give in an experiment. In the 1960s, John Stewart Bell developed the mathematical inequality that is named after him. This states that if there are hidden variables, the correlation between the results of a large number of measurements will never exceed a certain value. However, quantum mechanics predicts that a certain type of experiment will violate Bell’s inequality, thus resulting in a **stronger correlation than would otherwise be possible [0]**.*

*John Clauser developed John Bell’s ideas, leading to a practical experiment. When he took the measurements, they supported quantum mechanics by clearly violating a Bell inequality. This means that** quantum mechanics cannot be replaced by a theory that uses hidden variables [1].*

*Some loopholes remained after John Clauser’s experiment. **Alain Aspect developed the setup, using it in a way that closed an important loophole. He was able to switch the measurement settings after an entangled pair had left its source, so the setting that existed when they were emitted could not affect the result [2].*

*Using refined tools and long series of experiments, Anton Zeilinger started to use entangled quantum states. Among other things, his research group has demonstrated a phenomenon called quantum teleportation, which makes it possible to move a quantum state from one particle to one at a distance.*

*“It has become increasingly clear that a new kind of quantum technology is emerging. We can see that the laureates’ work with entangled states is of great importance, even beyond the fundamental questions about the interpretation of quantum mechanics,” says Anders Irbäck, Chair of the Nobel Committee for Physics.*

*****

*Personal notes: [0] This depends upon the fact that measuring the spin of a particle in one direction affects the measurement of the spin of the same particle in another direction… which is certainly not the case in Classical Mechanics: if one finds the rotation of a particle in direction x it does not affect a subsequent measurement in direction y…*

*[1] Nobel Com should have said: **quantum mechanics cannot be replaced by a theory that uses LOCAL hidden variables.*

*And what does “LOCAL” mean? Topology as defined using the speed of light for metric. In other words, nonlocal hidden variables are permitted, and this is what SQPR, a SUB QUANTUM Physical Reality uses.*

*[2] **Aspect thus showed that there was such a thing as a **QUANTUM INTERACTION, and it propagates faster than light. The big question is how fast. In excess of 10^23c *

*The notion of Quantum Interaction is important. **Once one agrees (with Newton) that no interaction can be instantaneous, and once one has identified Quantum Collapse with it, Dark Matter and Dark Energy are near instantaneous deductions.*

*****

Anyway, here it is: Nonlocality has become official!

Patrice Ayme