Archive for the ‘Astronomy’ Category

How Fake Anglo-Saxon Mental Supremacy Was Established: Gross Lies. The Case Of Newton Turned Into God

September 20, 2020

Authorities want to make us believe that the spiritual ancestors of today’s rulers invented everything. Often they are even the genetic ancestors, but that is besides the point: by extolling imaginary predecessors, Anglo-Saxon supremacists have installed an aura of supremacy… for the systems of thought they installed and rule with, enabling them to reign effortlessly.

Now this is deep and systematic. Even Anglo-Saxon intellectuals who pretend to be against the system are part of the plot. An easy hint is who feeds and powers them: if it is the establishment, and the establishment likes them, that’s a warning sign.

Most of the world’s top historical minds who contributed to most of humanity’s mental progress got serious difficulties with the establishment, because new ideas threaten old oligarchies always: if what was always known is suddenly found to be wrong… what about the ruling establishment? Could possibly be the ruling establishment wrong too? This is why the genuine geniuses of creative thinking always smell of Lucifer, Lux-ferre, light carrying… As far as public opinion is concerned.

Socrates’ execution is famous, but just earlier Aspasia’s son had been executed (Aspasia was the philosopher telling Pericles what to say), so would be Demosthenes (fleeing Macedonian henchmen), Archimedes assassinated by a Roman soldier (for doing geometry in the sand), Hypatia (raped, flayed and dragged alive until dead, courtesy of the local Christians), or Boetius… And so were executed or terrified most Muslim intellectuals… Not to mention countless French intellectuals in the early Sixteenth Century, Bruno (burned alive in 1600 CE for suggesting exoplanets and solar systems around stars), Kepler (his mom was tried for witchcraft), Galileo and Descartes fleeing France (just for reasoning in public, after inventing algebraic geometry), and so on. Yes, the examples extend all the way to the Twentieth Century.

Most of these top thinkers had this in common: they had unusual careers, typically outside of the mainstream, and they lived dangerously. Because of this, they are often belittled to this day: little thinkers paid by the establishment tend to have resentment towards the great minds who had the courage to discover the bulk of human knowledge, because great minds are not small employees.

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Kepler’s work was necessary for Newton to contribute to human understanding. But Kepler’s work, on the face of it, was much harder than Newton’s. By the way, Kepler thought gravitation went as the inverse of the distance. The true law is the square of that. That was found by Bullaldius. All astronomers had an intuitive understanding, originating with Buridan’s explicit texts, that the gravitational force, in combination with the laws of motion, gave planetary orbits. The idea was published by 1350 CE. Newton proved most of the detailed mathematical reasoning (but arguably not all, he missed what came to be known as “Gauss theorem”… Although he tried to prove it). Great, but not the end all be all, as White Anglo-Saxon Supremacists pretend…

Richard Dawkins FRS (Fellow Royal Society), FRSL is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and author. He is an emeritus fellow of New College, Oxford, and was the University of Oxford’s Professor for Public Understanding of Science from 1995 until 2008. Dawkins first came to prominence with his 1976 book The Selfish Gene, which popularised the gene-centred view of evolution and introduced the term meme. He just penned the following opinion, typical of white Anglo-Saxon supremacists:

Richard Dawkins, @RichardDawkins

“In 1665 Cambridge University closed because of plague. Isaac Newton retreated to rural Lincolnshire. During his 2 years in lockdown he worked out calculus, the true meaning of colour, gravitation, planetary orbits & the 3 Laws of Motion. Will 2020 be someone’s Annus Mirabilis?”

That statement of Dawkins sounds innocent enough: everybody agrees Newton invented everything he is famous for, and that’s a lot, as described by Dawkins. Yeah, except that most of what is attributed to Newton was actually not discovered by Newton. It is propaganda, to make us believe a WASP (White Anglo-Saxon Protestant) was this unfathomable genius. That is done by attributing to him centuries of discoveries, and turning the history of humanity into systemic racism.

Indeed, Newton didn’t invent calculus: Fermat did. (at most Newton invented a geometric way to solve some problems of calculus pertaining to orbits; using geometry to solve calculus problems was inaugurated by Buridan’s students… in the 1300s…).

And Newton didn’t find the second law of motion (which implies the first): Buridan did, three centuries before Newton (nowadays some Anglo-Saxons recognize that the law was known before Newton). The gravitation law was from French astronomer Bullaldius/Boulliau, Newton said it himself. And planetary orbits were Kepler’s great work, with his three law of planetary orbits!

So what did Newton do? Mostly he tried to prove that the law of motions plus the gravitation force as the inverse square of the distance implied Kepler’s laws. That’s great, but not of the order of Descartes’ Algebraic Geometry, or Fermat’s Calculus. To add insult to injury the notation of Leibnitz for calculus is used to this day… while Newton’s geometric calculus is ignored (that may be a mistake…) Newton and Leibnitz had a quarrel about this…

To establish their model of civilization, the English  propaganda has know no bounds: Sir Francis Drake, a great explorer, savior of England when confronting the Great Armada, was also a corsair mandated by the Queen, and a slave trader operating slave ships for profit. Not just that, but that plutocrat was one of the original “West Country men” who devastated Ireland. That mood and methods were then exported to America, where they established systemic racism as jurisprudence.

And central to propaganda was to establish English mental supremacy, for the entire planet to be awed by. As the great rival was France, the other Western superpower of the Middle Ages, many French discoveries were attributed to Englishmen. An example is Emilie Du Chatelet, who discovered and demonstrated energy… thus rising above Newton, who confused energy and momentum (discovered circa 1340 CE by Buridan; momentum is mv, energy is 1/2 mvv). This is a case of sexism hobbling civilization.

Another case is Denis Papin. Papin, who was a French physicist who trained with the best minds of his day, was a university professor of engineering. Papin fabricated the first powerful steam engine, and one capable of propelling a boat. After Papin’s death, Watt was born, and Watt, an inventor out of many, perfected the steam engine. So the unit of power is called a Watt because many people in England spent a lot of time trying (and succeeding) to steal Papin’s invention: the efforts of thieves should not go to waste. In the latest twist, British propaganda now calls Papin a British scientist… in truth Papin’s boat was built in Germany where he was professor, and, after steaming a hundred miles was destroyed by monks, who are professionals in fighting Lucifer…

An even more spectacular case is Lamarck, who published his establishment of the theory of evolution (from studying mollusk fossils with a microscope, for decades), before Darwin was born. Napoleon, and the Christian churches hated Lamarck, who was outlawed in english universities (Lyell and Darwin had to go to Scotland to be taught Lamarck’s discoveries). To this day, the disdain for Lamarck is a duty shared by those who want to teach in Anglo-Saxon universities, otherwise one would be called a charlatan.

Those who want to fight systemic racism have learned recently that they are made to revere false idols. Yes, and it did not happen by accident, but by intelligent design.

Simplicius: OK, as usual, you evoked some of the great minds and things we Anglo-Saxons tend to have never heard of: Buridan, Fermat, Papin, Du Châtelet, Lamarck… All French. And then Algebraic Geometry, Energy…

PA: Descartes invented how to describe geometry algebraically. Then Fermat developed Calculus, all the way to showing differentiation and integration were inverse to each other… As far as so many of the deepest thinkers being French, that comes from two things: First, France, or more exactly the Francia of the Franks was the creator of Europe (named by the Franks). Both Germany (by 800 CE) and Britain (1066) were Frankish creations. In either case, slavery was made unlawful. Second, France had three times the population of England. 

The case of Du Châtelet should be famous: here is a woman and she establishes what is perhaps the most important concept in physics. Buridan: momentum. Du Châtelet: energy. Sorry, but Newton’s discoveries pale in comparison (by the way, she died young, from childbirth; had she lived longer her contributions may have been even more amazing; she was an excellent philosopher of science).

Simplicius: Why would we, simple folks, care about who established the great scientific advances? Somebody did. So what?

PA: Which societies advance human understanding is crucial. Most do not, most of the time. We want to save humanity, going forward, and that means discovering what makes us more intelligent. Moreover in the case of England versus France, I detailed the fact that their colonization models in America were different. The French approach was governmental, and determined not to force the Natives. The English model was that of the “West Country Men”, as refined in England: exterminate, maximize profits.

Simplicius: What does who invented what have to do with how colonization was performed?

PA: The “West Country Men” model weaponized systemic racism. Racism is the idea that some human beings are biologically superior to others. By attributing all the discoveries to Englishmen, the Englishman is established as a higher species, or at least one which invents everything. In particular, the British plutocracy invented the most superior system of thought pertaining to civilization. So the “West Country Men” mentality, keen to line alleyways with Irish skulls, came to rule America. A practical consequence was the eradication of the Indians. 

Simplicius: Is not that all so yesterday? 

PA: Far from it. The mentality that greed and higher profits should rule is itself ruling, because it has ruled for four centuries, and penetrated the institutions. Trump came along and said: ‘Down with profits in China, bring back the jobs!’ The establishment, which uses the maximization of profits as its most superior moral principle, hated him for it. They hated him for it to the point they started to degrade the political process. An example is Biden calling Trump an “arsonist”, while it is the Obama-Biden administration which developed fracking, and was very loud about it. 

Claiming England had a superior model of civilization in its civilization relative to France (let alone Spain or Portugal) is claiming that the world should go on with that system of civilization… which is the dominant system of civilization, worldwide. The real situation is of course very complex. For example at this point the Brexiter Boris Johnson is applying old French like methods… While the European Union is officially led by greed is right, that is the “West Country Men” way… with the caveat that the COVID pandemic has proven that old fashion governmentalism, the French way, as practiced successfully by China… saves lives. So maybe then, Trump was right all along, and both France and Germany have decided to operate the same U turn towards more industrialization, planning and self sufficiency. 

Simplicius: OK, please, I have a headache! Let’s stop here! So then your point is that, by extolling Englishmen as great geniuses, when in fact they are not as great as that, one extolls English plutocracy and its systems of thought, moods and mentality, and that this is bad for civilization and the planet, promoting systemic racism, among other things. Got it.   

PA: It also distorts the refined history of systems of thought. And that’s not neglectable, because it teaches us how humanity learned to think better.  

Simplicius: Once again I don’t understand why correct attribution of the origins of systems of thought are relevant to the common person.

PA: It works this way: thinkers such as Dawkins go to school and are conditioned to believe the greatest minds are Anglo-Saxon. So they are naturally inclined to believe anything Anglo-Saxon is mentally superior, and this is what they teach in turn to the intellectual class of reporters, lawyers, doctors, engineers, CEOs, boards of directors, etc.

Those who want to fight systemic racism have learned recently that they are made to revere false idols. Yes, and it did not happen by accident, but by intelligent design. And yes it starts with the apparently innocent divinization of  Sir Francis Drake, Isaac Newton, or James Watt…

There is no innocence in the world of logic, contrarily to repute…

Patrice Ayme

 

Space Colonization For Real. And Why Humanity Needs It, To Keep On Being Human.

August 23, 2020

It’s fashionable among intellectuals of the lesser sort to spite technology. Of course, that’s perfectly idiotic, hypocritical, and base: they would not even exist without the technology and the capability to use it, which our ancestors developed, already millions of years ago… As a species. Yes, the arrogant thinker, thinking where no thought has been thought before, on which all of civilization rests, is a direct biological creation of exponentiating technology. That, and apple pie.

Arrogance is great, as long as it bears fruit, such as thoughts the commons find astounding,and one could not have had them otherwise. . But arrogance for the sake of denial bears no fruit.

Water at the poles of the Moon, where it condensates in perpetual shadows. (Artist representation).

What’s the spatial bodies we can hope to colonize? Well, it used to look real hard. If one had to lift water from Earth to space… We didn’t have the capability of launching all this water cheaply enough.

Friend Stephen Jones observed:

“Mars is our only potential candidate to colonize. Beyond our own solar system? Nope. We will never reach another solar system.”

Well, indeed, we need water, and lots of energy. Fifty years ago, it looked as if there was only one planet with water in the Solar System: Earth. Now we have found so much that we have to demonstrate life did NOT evolve out there in the Solar System. The same is true, even more so, with exoplanets. 

Now we know that Mars, Europa, Enceladus, Ganymede, Pluto… have lots of water. Europa may have more than Earth (we don’t know how deep its ocean is). Some asteroids, comets, the poles of Mercury have water. It’s also very likely that the Moon water is usable. The largest asteroid, a spherical dwarf planet, Ceres, is a water rich body, with eruption of brine in several places. Once we have water, all we need is energy to make livable quarters. NASA is fully aware of all this.

Ceres is an ocean world where water and ammonia reacted with silicate rocks. As the ocean froze, salts and other telltale minerals concentrated into deposits that are now exposed in many locations across the surface. The Dawn spacecraft, which orbited it ever closer, also found organics in several locations on Ceres’ surface.

Altogether, Ceres seems to be approximately 40% or 50% water by volume, compared to 0.1% for Earth, and 73% rock by mass. So no more lifting water up there in space: it’s there already. We just need to get there, with lots of (nuclear) energy…

And how to get there? Well Elon Musk’s SpaceX has landed one particular rocket six times already (crushing down the price to orbit: it would take just one million dollars to repair and refurbish tat rocket, SpaceX says…). His Starship is supposed to be as reusable as an helicopter (revolutionizing point to point transport on Earth, no doubt) [1]. 

But the ultimate grail is portable thermonuclear fusion… Give us this, oh Lord, and the galaxy is ours… Nobody knows is that is feasible: the Sun is not big by accident. Thermonuclear fusion works better, the bigger the reactor. we are trying to do in a room what a gigantic Brown Dwarf can barely achieve. And Red Dwarf stars are eminently unstable… 

IF portable fusion is feasible, we will conquer the entire Solar System, and missions to proximal stars are imaginable, if we master hibernation (all sorts of rodents do it, after all…)

The philosophical question is why bother? 

Why to conquer space? The answer is simple: because it raises the bar of our understanding.  

An example? NASA just announced that its perpetually deferred new space telescope the James Webb, will be launched even later than last forecast (Fall 2021 now). Why? It’s immensely complex. To fit inside the fairing of the Ariane V rocket (or any rocket), it has to be folded. The mirror system and the solar shield enfold themselves in 180 different operations… This has to work 100% on 180 operations, as the telescope will be at the L1 Lagrangian point, where Earth and Sun gravitational attractions balance each other, 600,000 kilometers away, twice the distance of the Moon.  

So this telescope is perhaps the most complex machine ever. It uses several new and finicky technologies… And so it is throughout space exploration. New tech, all over. Mastering space forces us to master those technologies. We are in a debate with space, and it teaches us a lot, this demanding master.

Look at the blackouts and fires in California: both are all about energy management. Yes, there was not enough energy to take care of the forests. Now there is not enough energy to fight fires burning into groves of 3,000 year old trees. Space teaches us to optimize energy management… in particular of creating, and using energy as efficiently as possible.

Space forces tech to go higher, better. And only new tech will save us, the Earth, and our high mental and spiritual standards… 

Space is not a luxury, it’s not just a refuge from disaster, or reality. It is the future, because humanity is a force that goes. Up.

Patrice Ayme

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[1] Supporting Elon Musk directly and indirectly, I was against: it looked like a case of celebritism. Now I am happy to report I was in error (as I already said). Supporting Elon Musk with beaucoup dollars is actually the best thing Barack Obama ever did. What characterizes Musk is the boldness of vision, the “ALL HOPE AHEAD!” attitude, what Charles Quint called :”PLUS OULTRE!”

Musk’s Starship, if he gets it to work, will revolutionize transportation (the Pentagon is going to be very interested). If there is no will to reach much higher, there is no way to change much deeper, this is true all over. If there is no will for a different, better world, there is no way, and there is not even any thought going that way. Instead, the “Inch’Allah” way rules all… Suivez la direction de mon regard…

Is Intelligence The Definition Of Quantum Life? … Spatial Consequences…

August 16, 2020

IS LIFE, QUANTUM VERSION, CLEVER ENOUGH TO CREATE WHAT WE CAN’T? Yet? 

Obviously… As humanity gets beaten up by COVID 19, one may want to ponder how clever life is. Is COVID 19 a clever answer? To a question which was not asked enough? Do you, humanity, have enough decency to be clever enough to survive? What about space? How does life survives that? OK, it’s not exactly booming in Antarctica’s Dry Valleys. 

There are two aspects, contradicting each other, one disfavorable to life, the other favorable, which may not have been given enough weight in evaluating Advanced Intelligence in space. First the situation of Earth is special, very stable, in part from having a large Moon (compare with Mars’ wild rotation axis tumbling, with super winters, and super summers). Plus, the solar system is historically stable: no supernova exploded real close in the last 4 billion years. Many are the disasters possible, out there in space.

Disaster land: Scott, who discovered them, called Antarctica Dry Valleys the “valleys of death”. Katabatic winds regularly reach 300 kilometers per hour, and more, all the way down them… This is only 1,300 kilometers from the South Pole…

Red Dwarves, which are both most frequent and most unstable, are a case in point, with huge flares, Coronal Mass Ejections. They may be OK for human colonization, but biological evolution to multicellular level, is something else.

40 BILLION EARTHS? Yes & NO.

However, and in the other direction, it is likely that biological evolution is in great part a Quantum Process. Basically, to put it bluntly, the Quantum is intelligent (think about the interference pattern from the double slit: how does the photon know where to go? More prosaically, electrons find, Quantum Mechanically, the lowest energy solutions, as if they were little sorcerers: if that’s not clever, what is? This is used crucially in life forms extracting energy from the sun).

The delicate architecture of DNA is Quantum-sensitive to environmental conditions: if things change inside a cell, DNA can change in a selection-of-the fittest DNA. A process quicker than the selection of the fittest species, and which will appear as clever telenomic adaptation harnessing necessity beyond chance. 

So Quantum biology may be clever enough to survive in conditions which look impossible to us… Or even to be created in impossible conditions (think Red Dwarves).

The most sinister interpretation of the Fermi Paradox is not that civilizations don’t last. It is that they are in hiding, because it’s a jungle out there. That’s the Dark Forest theme found in many science fiction novels. Exploring Earth, Mars, Europa, Enceladus, and the closest star systems, should throw light on the subject. It’s possible that life is stuck at a very primitive level, all over. Indeed we don’t know how life evolved on Earth, thus, how likely the different steps… Quantum Computers should help with lowest energy solutions to find those probabilities…

The Antarctic Dry Valleys are basically deprived of life. However, there is some.

Researchers have discovered that Antarctica Dry Valleys are home to a variety of extremophiles (organisms that live in extreme environments). Among them are lichen and mosses, communities of microbes (including cyanobacteria), and nematodes (microscopic worms). Researchers continue to find and study these and other organisms and their adaptations, which allow them to survive in one of the most punishing environments on the planet. A natural question is: how well would they do on Mars? For that matter, is there life on the summit of Mount Everest? Everest has bare rock expanses, not far from the summit, in conditions reminiscent of the Dry Valleys. Now, of course the highest atmospheric pressure on Mars corresponds to 28,000 meters on Earth… (it’s at the lowest point of Mars geoid, 8,200 meters below it… A more subtle observation is that they may not have had enough space and time, and stable enough an environment to evolve…

Life is smart. Maybe that’s its definition. How smart? Our own expansion away from Earth will help us figure it out…

Patrice Ayme

Dark Black Hole Next Door

May 6, 2020

HR 6819, is a double star system, about 1,000 light-years away, or roughly 9.5 thousand, million, million kilometers, in the Constellation Telescopium. On the scale of the galaxy, it’s next door. Usually Black Holes are detected by the sparks of material furiously accelerated as it falls towards the hole (“Accretion” BH). Copious X-rays are emitted. However, this phenomenon arises typically when two stars are in close orbit, one goes supernova, then implode into a Black Hole, and material keeps transferring from the other star towards the hole.

If the stars are far enough, and one collapses into a Black Hole, there is no reason for a transfer of material. The Black Hole arises because, to our knowledge, gravity will overwhelm any force we know of, if there is enough mass M in a tight enclosure. Notice the “if”. In truth we are not absolutely sure that Black Hole equation, passed a point will behave as General Relativity supposes, because we could only be sure if we are sure we have all of physics figured out. Highly unlikely…

A basic trick used all over astronomy to evaluate the masses of stars and planets, as long as something rotates around them. Gravitational constant has been put equal to unity, to simplify.

But one thing that is clear, and it was already clear to Laplace in the Eighteenth Century, if there is enough mass concentrated, particles of light won’t come out. Laplace waxed lyrical on the subject, until he realized that, thanks to Young’s and others’ work, it looked like light was, after all, a wave, not a particle as Laplace had assumed, following Newton. It was clear how to hold a particle down, with a concentrated mass… But not a wave. So Laplace, assuming now light was a wave, removed Black Holes from late editions of his book!  We can see that the wave-particle perplexity was already causing trouble centuries ago…

The HR 6819 Black Hole can be characterized from its interaction with the two stars of HR 6819 – one that orbits the hole, and the other that orbits this inner pair.

HR 6819 can be seen with just the naked eye from the southern sky. No telescope or binoculars are needed. The 2.2m telescope at La Silla Observatory in Chile reveals the inner of the two visible stars to be orbiting an unseen object every 40 days.

Considering the speed of the orbiting star, and its radius, the invisible object is found to be around four solar masses, more than twice the mass at which a Black Hole is unavoidable in a dark object (a star can have up to hundreds of times the mass of the Sun, but only because raging thermonuclear fire keeps it inflated).

Stars at the end of their lives with a bit more than 1.4 solar masses will implode the Black Hole way. Some think there maybe 10^8 of them in the Milky Way… Which has an area of roughly 10^10 light years… this makes it likely there are other really black Black Holes of the same type closer than that…

Patrice Ayme

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From the source:

A naked-eye triple system with a nonaccreting black hole in the inner binary,⋆⋆

Abstract:

Several dozen optical echelle spectra demonstrate that HR 6819 is a hierarchical triple. A classical Be star is in a wide orbit with an unconstrained period around an inner 40 d binary consisting of a B3 III star and an unseen companion in a circular orbit. The radial-velocity semi-amplitude of 61.3 km s−1 of the inner star and its minimum (probable) mass of 5.0 M (6.3 ± 0.7 M) imply a mass of the unseen object of ≥4.2 M (≥5.0 ± 0.4 M), that is, a black hole (BH). The spectroscopic time series is stunningly similar to observations of LB-1. A similar triple-star architecture of LB-1 would reduce the mass of the BH in LB-1 from ∼70 M to a level more typical of Galactic stellar remnant BHs. The BH in HR 6819 probably is the closest known BH to the Sun, and together with LB-1, suggests a population of quiet BHs. Its embedment in a hierarchical triple structure may be of interest for models of merging double BHs or BH + neutron star binaries. Other triple stars with an outer Be star but without BH are identified; through stripping, such systems may become a source of single Be stars.

Exit Big Bang? The Universe Is Anisotropic!

April 14, 2020

Of few things truly certain we are, but of many things most falsely speak…

Astronomers assumed for decades, without any proof, that the Universe was expanding at the same rate in all directions: it was simpler that way (after all some hanger-ons were claiming they were present during the “First Three Minutes”!… and thus became very famous…). A new study based on data from ESA’s XMM-Newton, NASA’s Chandra and the German-led ROSAT X-ray observatories suggests this key premise of cosmology might be wrong.

The Universe in simplified glory. However… Not as simple as expected! The blue areas expand more slowly than expected, the yellow areas faster. In isotropy, the image would be monochromatic red. Credit: © Konstantinos Nikolaos Migkas, Uni Bonn/Astronomy & Astrophysics. And the differences are not small: thirty percent! (30%!)

The isotropy hypothesis says that the Universe has, despite some local differences, the same properties in each direction on the large scale. The hypothesis has been supported by observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). An alleged direct remnant of the Big Bang, the CMB would reflect the state of the Universe as it was in its infancy, at only 380 000 years of age. The CMB’s uniform distribution in the sky suggested that in those early days the Universe must have been expanding at the same rate in all directions.

If this would still be true in more recent times, the speed of galactic clusters should average out. But significant differences were observed.

The astronomers used X-ray temperature measurements of the extremely hot gas that pervades the clusters and compared the data with how bright the clusters appear in the sky. Clusters of the same temperature and located at a similar distance should appear similarly bright. But that is not what the astronomers observed.

Clusters with the same properties, with similar temperatures, appeared to be less bright than expected in one direction of the sky, and brighter than expected in another direction. The difference was quite significant, around 30 percent. These differences are not random but have a clear pattern depending on the direction in which we observed in the sky.

Before challenging the widely accepted status quo ante, the cosmology model known as LCDM, which provides the basis for estimating the cluster distances, other possible explanations were looked at. Perhaps, there could be undetected gas or dust clouds obscuring the view and making clusters in a certain area appear dimmer. The data, however, do not support this scenario. Nor does it support that the distribution of clusters is affected by bulk flows, large-scale motions of matter caused by the gravitational pull of extremely massive structures such as large cluster groups.

The authors speculate that this uneven effect on cosmic expansion might be caused by Dark Energy, the mysterious component of the cosmos which accounts for the majority—around 69% – of its overall energy. Very little is known about dark energy today, except that it appears to have been accelerating the expansion of the Universe in the past few billion years.

Meanwhile, lots of things will have to be recomputed… And the flow of surprises from heavens doesn’t stop here… A Milky way sized Dark Matter galaxy would have been discovered…

Patrice Ayme

Sun, Violent Stars, And Their Superflares

June 17, 2019

In the Chinese blockbuster movie “Wandering Earth“, the Sun goes red giant, and then Jupiter has a gravity spike (as the Earth swings by). Could it happen? According to today’s official physics, no. According to my own Sub Quantic Physics Reality (SQPR), yes. [1] Established scientists may smirk. However, smirking by established scientists or thinkers about imaginable science or thinking, all too often just exhibit their limited understanding of their own lack of understanding, and, or, imagination

A problem for our future conquest of the galaxy is that most stars are unstable Red Dwarves. I have argued it means we should be able to find lots of planets with very primitive life, as the most sophisticated type of life would be periodically eradicated. The past is hard to predict… except now we can look at it, with powerful telescopes… and read it.

Stars explode. Stars do also plenty of smaller, more sustainable flares and conflagrations…. The mass extinction level kill radius of a supernova (above) is at least ten light years. But to kill life in a solar system, a star can do, with much smaller explosions: the Earth is only 8 light minutes from the Sun…

When US astronauts went to the Moon, they found traces of a scorching superflare… so dreadful an idea, nobody evokes it anymore…

Studies by the US Kepler space telescope of  solar-type (G-type main-sequence), combined with Apache Point Observatory (APO) 3.5 m telescope spectroscopic observations and the European space telescope show that stars as old and sedate as the sun undergo “superflares”. Working from a sample of about 90,000 Sun-like stars, the researchers identified more than 1,000 superflares from about 300 stars.

The researchers thought these stars would be  rotating rapidly. Quickly spinning stars tend to have strong magnetic fields that easily get tangled up, bunching up, which is thought to kick off flares. However, a fast spin is apparently not a requirement for strong eruptions. Combining their brightness data with radius estimates from the Gaia satellite, the researchers were able to determine how fast their flaring stars were spinning. As expected, stars that rotate once every few days had superflares about 20 times as powerful as more slowly spinning stars like the Sun, which rotates about once every 25 days. However, Sun-like stars were still seen producing hazardous superflares.

A superflare could destroy lots of electronic on Earth (and adversely affect space explorers). Thus, the Sun has to be studied much more.

In September 1859, a solar flare sent a wave of charged particles washing over our planet. It triggered one of the most powerful geomagnetic storms ever recorded: the Carrington Event. As the particles slammed into Earth’s protective magnetic field, they triggered beautiful aurorae that stretched as far south as Hawaii and Cuba. But the Carrington Event didn’t just produce pretty lights in the sky. It also wreaked havoc on telegraph networks spread across North America and Europe. In fact, there are reports of the cosmically overcharged telegraph lines starting fires and shocking telegraph operators during the event.

Explosive activity on sun-like stars is tied to their age, and their rotation. The older, and the slower the rotation, the less explosive. Superflares with energies 5 × 10^34 erg occur on old, slowly rotating Sun-like stars (P rot ~ 25 days) approximately once every 2000–3000 yr, while young, rapidly rotating stars with P rot ~ a few days have superflares up to 10^36 erg.

That would mean energies 500 times that of the Carrington event… which was only 10^32 ergs… and would still be devastating today…[2]

In any case, constant disasters out there in space is my solution to the “Fermi Paradox” (evoking the aliens, “Where is everybody?”, joked Enrico, once at breakfast in the 1950s…)

https://patriceayme.wordpress.com/2013/11/06/40-billion-earths-yes-no/

And the more we look, the more we see how true that seems…

Philosophically speaking, that implies life on Earth we are busy destroying is much more of a miracle than is generally felt: watch all the plastic, all over, all the fossil fuels burned, etc…

Patrice Ayme

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[1] In SQPR, Dark Matter can be lumpy (also an experimental fact). Also, it influences inertia and other forces, including gravity (hence Dark Energy). So crossing a Dark Matter lump may affect all forces. A gravity spike inside the Sun would cause high mass nuclides to fuse, as happen in Red Giant, or Supernovas…

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[2] Most powerful supernova found: 10^ 45 ergs per second, or 10^ 38 watts, or 30 times the energy of the entire giant Milky Way (which is larger than Andromeda). So the most powerful flares are a billion times less powerful… But they tend to be directed in a particular direction… Mars lost its atmosphere from solar flares…

 

Dark Matter Not Caused By Tiny Black Holes

May 25, 2019

Big, yet simple ideas is what propels physics. Always has, always will.

27 per cent of the matter in the Universe is made up of Dark Matter. Its gravitational force prevents stars in our Milky Way from flying apart.

Some proposed that DM doesn’t exist, the 1/dd law of gravitation doesn’t work (MOND theories), General Relativity is thus false, etc… I don’t believe in MOND. One reason that I don’t believe in MOND is that my own Sub Quantum theory, SQPR, predicts Dark Matter.

Attempts to detect Dark Matter particles using underground experiments, or accelerator experiments including the world’s largest accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider, have failed so far.

That leaves me smirking, as my own SQPR doesn’t use particles….

Watch the entire Andromeda, and detect flickering…

***

The failure of the DM particle search has led some to consider Hawking’s 1974 theory of the existence of primordial black holes, born shortly after the Big Bang, and his speculation that they could make up a large fraction of the elusive Dark Matter.

An international team of researchers, led by Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe Principal Investigator Masahiro Takada, PhD candidate student Hiroko Niikura, Professor Naoki Yasuda, and including researchers from Japan, India and the US, have used gravitational lensing to look for primordial black holes between Earth and the Andromeda galaxy. Gravitational lensing is what happens when gravitation bends of light rays coming from a distant object such as a star due to the gravitational effect of an intervening massive object such as a primordial black hole. It is a prediction of Newton’s theory of light as particles, and is multiplied by a factor of two from the slowing down of local time next to a mass such as the Sun (Einstein’s prediction thereof).

In extreme cases, such light bending causes the background star to appear much brighter than it originally is.

Figure 2: As the Subaru Telescope on Earth looks at the Andromeda galaxy, a star in Andromeda will become significantly brighter if a primordial black hole passes in front of the star. As the primordial black hole continues to move out of alignment, the star will also turn dimmer (go back to its original brightness). Credit: Kavli IPMU

Gravitational lensing effects due to primordial black holes, if they existed, would be very rare events because it requires a star in the Andromeda galaxy, a primordial black hole acting as the gravitational lens, and an observer on Earth to be exactly in line with one another.

The one event which looked like a small Black Hole detection…

To maximize the chances of capturing an event, the researchers used the Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope, which can capture the whole image of the Andromeda galaxy in one shot. Taking into account how fast primordial black holes are expected to move in interstellar space, the team took multiple images to be able to catch the flicker of a star as it brightens for a period of a few minutes to hours due to gravitational lensing.

Figure 3: Data from the star which showed characteristics of being magnified by a potential gravitational lens, possibly by a primordial black hole. About 4 hours after data taking on the Subaru Telescope began, one star began to shine brighter. Less than an hour later, the star reached peak brightness before becoming dimmer. Credit: Niikura et al.

From 190 consecutive images of the Andromeda galaxy taken over seven hours during one clear night, the team scoured the data for potential gravitational lensing events. If Dark Matter consists of primordial black holes of a given mass, in this case masses lighter than the moon, the researchers expected to find about 1000 events. But after careful analyses, they could only identify one case. The team’s results showed primordial black holes can contribute no more than 0.1 per cent of all Dark Matter mass. Therefore, it is unlikely that Hawking’s proposal is helps to solve the Dark Matter problem.

The more plausible conventional theories fail, the more SQPR looks good. I believe in SQPR, because it’s so simple, and in line with the sort of physics Buridan, Newton and Laplace approved of. It also makes sense of Quantum Mechanics by introducing the notion of Quantum Interaction, and then giving it a finite speed.[1]

Patrice Ayme

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***

[1] Kepler is the first I know of who mention the planets been held to the sun by a force (1/d). Boulliau, aka Bullialdus, corrected that into 1/dd, by analogy with light. Newton was baffled by the absurdity of it all, but Laplace introduced the simple trick of making gravity go at a finite speed… and predicted black holes! Then Lorentz and Poincaré introduced local time. Anyway the SQPR interaction duplicates Kepler’s work, in a sense. Then DM becomes a prediction a bit similar to Laplace’s gravitational waves… (That is, energy consideration… with observable consequences. Then waves, for Laplace, now DM, with SQPR…)

Black Hole For Dummies: An Old Illuminating Story

April 11, 2019

Black Hole Seen At Core Of Galaxy Messier 87 

Black Holes were predicted at the end of the Eighteenth Century. I am not here campaigning for justice or historical precision, by giving Michell and Laplace the honor due to them. I am also defending physics, and promoting understanding. The guy with the bushy hairdo didn’t launch understanding of Black Holes. That means Black Hole theory arose for DEEPER reasons than in Einstein’s theory of gravitation. Deeper reasons is what science is all about.

Black Holes are indeed an effect of the most basic theory of gravity which was elaborated in the 1560-1800 CE period by Tycho, Kepler, Galileo, Bullialdus, Hookes, Newton, and finally Laplace. That basic theory of gravitation is the first order of the present theory of gravitation. The Black Hole effect, per se, has nothing to do with Jules Henri Poincaré’s Theory of Relativity (translated into German by Einstein).

In 1796 marquis Pierre-Simon de Laplace,mathematician, physicist, astronomer and philosopher (of course) rediscovered the idea of John Michell, a cleric and independent scholar. Michell has noticed that a body falling from far away onto something big enough, would exceed the speed of light. Thus, supposing that light would be made of particles, those particles would lose as much speed, trying to escape that big body, and thus, would fall back onto that body.  Laplace wrote:

Un astre lumineux, de la même densité que la Terre, et dont le diamètre serait 250 fois plus grand que le Soleil, ne permettrait, en vertu de son attraction, à aucun de ses rayons de parvenir jusqu’à nous. Il est dès lors possible que les plus grands corps lumineux de l’univers puissent, par cette cause, être invisibles.

(...because of this, it’s possible that the greatest luminous bodies of the universe would be invisible.)

Here I will follow Laplace’s proof.

Laplace on top. Don’t pay much attention to the text (not from me) which is a bit confusing

The Black Hole effect comes from the fact that the gravitational attraction is proportional upon the mass of an object, but also inversely proportional to the distance of said object, while the energy of an object necessary to escape the gravitation, is simply proportional to its mass. So, if too close, the gravitation will overwhelm any escape energy.  

Here is a bit more detailed reasoning  Supposing a particle of light has mass m, 1/2 mvv is its kinetic energy. If situated at x from the gravitational center, the energy to bring it to infinity is Gm/x. (G is aM, where a is some constant and M the central mass.)

Equating, we get 1/2 mvv = Gm/x

Thus, cancelling m, changing the constant: v^2= bM/x

But now, as early as the late 17C, the speed of light became known, by observing carefully Jupiter’s satellites.  It’s c, a constant. So we get: x= bM/cc.

Hence, if x is smaller than bM/cc, the potential gravitational energy Gm/x is TOO BIG to become 1/2 mcc.

Let’s put it in words only. Suppose light is a particle of mass m.  

OK, let me wait for the laughter of professional physicists to die off… Indeed, those simple souls will object that I neglected Relativity and its guru, Einstein. Well, my reply is that I know very well what I am doing, and they don’t. Meanwhile, here is the Black Hole:

Matter Falling into the Black Hole or running crazy orbits around it at relativistic speeds generate lots of heat, by collision and sheer acceleration (like a super enormously incredibly humongously giant circular particle accelerator, CERN on unimaginable steroids…). With 6.5 BILLION Solar Masses, this is one the largest Black Holes known.

OK, this reasoning was in Laplace. The incredibly famous Laplace, after whom Laplacians are named, made gravitation into a field theory, predicting thus gravitational waves (said waves were relativized by Jules Henri Poincaré… Modern Quantum Field Theory is all about manipulating Laplacians…

So is light a particle? Einstein said so (following Newton) [I have my doubts: SQPR changes the game!] Does light have mass? Definitely yes, according to E = mcc, a relation first demonstrated and taught by Jules Henri Poincaré in 1899 at the Sorbonne (the Einstein cult omits this little detail). There is a simple reasoning for that… simple once one knows Maxwell equations, or observe light momentum…

Here is the simplest proof of E = mcc. Light pushes, it has momentum. So light acts as if it had what’s called “inertial mass”. Now the “Equivalence Principle”  says that inertial mass = gravitational mass. Thus, light behaves as if it were endowed with a gravitational mass m, as used above.  

(The EP is truly an experimental observations, last checked excruciatingly a year ago, in a French satellite launched for that purpose)

So what’s the next problem in my hare brain derivation of Black Hole? None, really. The modern gravitation theory (aka General Relativity) integrates the LOCAL TIME theory of Lorentz-Jules Henri Poincaré into the gravitation theory of Newton. Local time runs slow in a gravitational field, and the deeper the gravitational well, the slower the time. Thus, if I wanted to ameliorate the hare brain Black Hole theory, I would have to add that….

The full Einstein gravitation theory simply says that: Ricci Tensor = Mass-Energy Tensor.

The Italian Ricci, starting in 1890, simplified the full Riemann Curvature tensor. It’s applied to the spacetime metric g. We see immediately that, the more mass-energy, the more curvature. In the limiti of small masses, this is Newton’s equation…

The preceding is very simple, thus ironclad.  

So here it is: physics is not that complicated.

***

Many scientists present science as more complicated than it is, so they appear to be great sorcerers or shamans. An example is the claim made by Darwin that man arose in East Africa (then a UK dominion). There was evidence for this, as the Brits digged in East Africa. When the Chinese digged in China, they begged to differ. Humans had originated in China too, they insisted.

Now another human species was just discovered, in the Philippines… ‘Homo luzonensis’ boasted an eclectic mix of features comparable to, but distinct from, different species of hominins. So this is another human species which lived 50,000 to 60,000 years ago. We now have five. It’s clearly a different species as they have three root teeth where we have just two.

Contemporary humans have genetic material from three human species: ancestral Sapiens, Neanderthals and Denisovans…

Science is both simple, and complex. Often the lack of simplicity, and the grandiloquent style in exposition, is just an attempt to hide ignorance, and leveraging said ignorance in awe for the perpetrators of pseudo-scientific obscurantism.  

Physicists are particularly culprit of this in recent decades. Consider titles such as: “The First Three Minutes”, “The Theory of Everything”, “A Universe Out Of Nothing”, “The God Particle”, etc… The more fatuous physicists became, the less the theory progressed. Now, right, they couldn’t probably have done better. Fortunately, experimental physics, and especially astronomy has kept on advancing, ever more spectacularly… cornering the fatuous ones, even when adorned with Nobel Prizes, into irrelevance…

Decades ago, I caused a scandal at an integrated physics-mathematics seminar at Stanford by exposing the shortcoming of Black Hole Theory… I was coming from the mathematical, hyper-logical side, unearthing all the little problems, which weren’t so little… Namely I claimed it didn’t take into account enough Quantum Theory. (Following my generously provided orientation, has brought a cottage industry of quantized “Black Holes” theory… Some not really black, just frozen…)

Many surprises await… Stay tuned…

Patrice Ayme

 

New Definition Of A Planet Makes Pluto A Planet

March 5, 2019

In the past, one distinguished among three sorts of bodies in the Solar System: planets, satellites, asteroids. However, it turned out that Pluto, once thought to be Earth sized, is much smaller… Although its atmosphere extends way out, it’s nearly extended as far as the diameter of Earth! Yet, some smart ass astronomer, greedy for fame as academic types tend to be, their feeding depends upon their renown, then made his claim to fame by demoting Pluto. He even sold T-shirts, I have one.

Planet means “wanderer”, in greek. Because the planets wander across the stars without reason which prehistoric men, or even the Greeks, could discern. Upon closer inspection (astronomer Tycho and his pupil Kepler), planets turned out to follow slowly changing ellipses.

The modern scientific sense of planet as “world that orbits a star” was prominent in Giordano Bruno’s cosmology, giving the sadists in the Vatican a reason to torture him to death for seven years (Catholic sadistic abusers are persistent, they have been around for nearly two millennia).

Very round, and very blue. Don’t tell me that’s not a planet. Real picture of Pluto from nuclear energized New Horizon Spacecraft, as it left the planet behind….

Pluto was loudly demoted, officially speaking, because it was argued that “Pluto didn’t clear its orbit”. The statement sounds superficially impressively scientific. But, as always in science, the devil lurks in a more careful examination of the situation. Actually, Pluto, as far as I can see, does clear its orbit. So this was an example of the “Big Lie Technique” dear to Hitler: the bigger the lie, the more it convinces people… Just like Obama fixing healthcare with “Romneycare“…

Pluto clears it so well it is accompanied by an entire cortege of satellites, including the relatively enormous Charon, a companion so large Pluto and Charon orbit around a common point exterior to Pluto.

Pluto is usually farthest from the Sun. However, its orbit is closer than Neptune’s orbit for 20 years out of every 248 years. Pluto got closer than Neptune on February 7, 1979, temporarily becoming the 8th planet from the Sun. Pluto crossed back over Neptune’s orbit again on February 11, 1999, resuming its place as the 9th planet from the Sun for the next 228 years. 

In truth (see Note), Pluto overflies Neptune orbit, when at closest point to the Sun. So the two orbits never intersect. One could introduce the notion of orbit disk (the part of the planetary plane of a planet inside the orbit). The intersection of the planetary disks of Pluto and Neptune have planar measure zero! (First Objection to the “clearing” notion).

Anyway, one may as well say that Neptune didn’t clear its own orbit (as Pluto occupies it sometimes, according to those who aren’t smart enough to understand the First Objection, namely that the orbits don’t cross).

Pluto could be more colorful than expected… Charon hanging through the blue haze, which is bue for the same exact reason as Earth atmosphere (Rayleigh scattering….) Mountains are made of water ice with very different properties than terrestrial ice (it’s much harder).

To satisfy all, it was decreed that Pluto was a “Dwarf Planet”… Other Pluto-sized objects have been found since, further out. But some have weird shapes… Some expected Pluto’s atmosphere to freeze down… But the New Horizon robot found it alive and well. The Pluto system has turned out to be very complex.

As one finds exoplanets, the possibility exists that Earth-sized satellites will be found in orbit around giant planets. As in the movie Avatar. Actually one may have been discovered (there is a controversy, as with all new scientific discoveries).

One will want to call Earth sized moons orbiting giant planets “planets”.

So what would be a planet? One can still use the official criterion brandished by the International Astronomical Union. And then I would add the following NEW criterion:

Worlds around giant planets do exist, and one may have already been found. (from variation of the light of the local sun, with slow downs and accelerations similar to those observed in Jupiter’s satellites in the 17C…)

An object large enough, and round enough, to hold an atmosphere all around its entire surface should be called a planet. That would make the giant asteroid Ceres NOT a planet: it doesn’t hold an atmosphere, and didn’t clear its orbit (it’s part of the asteroid belt). According to that definition Ganymede, which has an oxygen atmosphere, and a diameter of 5262 kms, is a planet, so is Titan (very thick atmosphere; 5150 kms diameter). Mercury, clearly a planet, has a diameter of 4880 kms, a tiny bit larger than Callisto, Jupiter second largest satellite… which also has a tenuous atmosphere.

Whether one wants to call large moons equipped with atmospheres planets is a matter of taste.

But, “Pandora” like world would be planets (Ganymede is 4.5 billion years old, at least as old as Earth… Plenty of time to evolve life…)

So what’s a planet? As Giordano Bruno said, a world. And certainly an atmosphere all around, especially if propitious to life, makes it a world. Pandora is a world, that is, a planet. It doesn’t matter that, as it turns around its sun, Pandora also turns around a hyper giant planet.

And certainly, Pluto is a world, too. A much smaller one, but still a world.

Worlds, here we come!

Patrice Ayme

***

***

Note 1;

Pluto has cleared its orbit. That’s why it’s so full of satellites….

Diagram of Pluto’s and Neptune’s orbit, on a distance scale in AUs.

Pluto and Neptune will never collide. You can see this in the image below, which shows a view as seen from the side as the planets orbit around the Sun.

Neptune is cleared of Pluto’s orbit, and reciprocally

Most planets only make small excursions in the vertical and radial directions, but Pluto makes large ones. Pluto at times will move closer to the Sun than Neptune, but it is always well “below” the orbit of Neptune when this happens. The orbits never actually cross the same point in space. Simulations have shown this is stable for the next 4 billion years.

***

Note 2:

Could one have an irregular shaped body with an atmosphere only in some basins? Probably, but unlikely to be naturally sustainable (one would need to make computer simulations taking into account the Roche limit, and Quantum effects on geological stress… Atmospheric pressure varies significantly on parts of Mars… which has giant high mountains, but also deep basins…)

 

Most Habitable Exoplanets Found By NASA’s Kepler Aren’t So, Hints Gaia

October 30, 2018

Yes, before science becomes straightforward, it’s made of crooked timber: something we held as sure, and a great discovery of the last few years, is often revealed, on second examination, as in need of serious tweaking: the initial breakthrough survives, but transmogrified. As an interlude between aspects of the civilization bandwagon, with more lofty essays, let’s look at the future… space. Yes, the future is space: it is to us what the savannah, was to the genus Homo. The savanna, in combination with necessity, will, and the Élan vital of colonization, evolved us. The same Élan vital spurs space colonization. Élan vital, popularized by Nobel laureate philosopher Henri Bergson,was central to Lucretius-Epicurus philosophy of 23 centuries ago (philosophy which Christianism eradicated by burning its books, and killing its practitioners and defenders).  

It’s pretty clear that humanity, barring a deplorable accident, will be able to spawn across the galaxy: there are plenty of habitable planets out there, and, thanks to NASA, Elon Musk and his ilk, cheap access to space will come very soon.

However, the complementary technology we need for mass space colonization, compact controlled thermonuclear technology, has not yet arrived… Indeed, “habitable planet” doesn’t mean life appeared there, let alone advanced life, or civilization. So planets will be found, ripe for colonization, yet life-less. Colonizing Europa, for example, is feasible: there is plenty of water. Yet it will necessitate to harness fusion power (except if battery tech leaps ahead, and photovoltaics could be used after all…).

Nearly 4,000 exoplanets have been found by 2018.

Artist’s illustration of how rocky, potentially habitable worlds elsewhere in our galaxy might appear (from data found so far). Data gathered by telescopes in space and on the ground suggest that small, rocky planets are common (some system as Trappist, have many, close together… although not as close as here, ha ha ha.)
Credit: R. Hurt (SSC-Caltech)/NASA/JPL-Caltech

https://patriceayme.wordpress.com/2017/02/24/contemplating-philosophically-trappist-habitable-planets/

Supposedly, NASA’s prolific Kepler space telescope has discovered about 30 roughly Earth-size exoplanets in their host stars’ “habitable zone” — the range of orbital distances at which liquid water can likely exist on a world’s surface.

One doesn’t want planets to be too large: they would crush life as we know it, and retain light gases, making them “mini-Neptunes”.

However observations by the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Gaia spacecraft suggest that the actual number of habitable planets among them is probably only between two and 12, NASA officials said today. Ooops.

Before the scoffing starts, let me observe that this means, mostly, that the habitable zones have to be computed again: so planets in systems viewed as inhabitable, maybe, actually habitable, after all. And vice versa. So may be only a couple of habitable Kepler planets are habitable, but others may be.

Gaia launched in December of 2013 to create an ultraprecise 3D map of our giant galaxy, the Milky Way. So far, this map includes position information for about 1.7 billion stars and distance data for about 1.3 billion stars.

Gaia’s observations suggest that some of the Kepler host stars are brighter and bigger than previously believed. Planets orbiting such stars are therefore likely larger and hotter than previously thought. questions complete

A larger, brighter star releases more light, hence more heat. The “larger” correlation is a consequence of that. Kepler uses the “transit method.”

Kepler records the brightness dips caused when a planet crosses its parent star’s face from the Kepler telescope’s perspective. Estimates of such planets’ sizes are derived from the percentage of the stellar disk they block during these “transits.” So, if the stars’ diameter is revised upward, because it’s brighter, so is the size of the planet.

Astronomers, astrobiologists and planetary scientists still have a lot to learn about exoplanet habitability. So philosophers can strike: I pointed out that life may be common in the galaxy, but not so advanced life.

https://patriceayme.wordpress.com/2013/11/06/40-billion-earths-yes-no/

I pointed out too that the Earth nuclear reactor enables plate tectonic, and that the latter, hence the former, may be necessary for life. So may have to consider a radioactive belt, not just a water belt…

https://patriceayme.wordpress.com/2014/01/14/life-giving-nuclear-earth-reactor/

And in more details:

https://patriceayme.wordpress.com/2016/02/22/is-this-why-we-are-alone/

“We’re still trying to figure out how big a planet can be and still be rocky,” declared Jessie Dotson, astrophysicist at NASA’s Ames Research Center in Silicon Valley. Dotson is the project scientist for Kepler’s current, extended mission, known as K2. That will depend in part upon the nature of the planet’s rock, especially its density.

As I have pointed out, The concept of the habitable zone can’t be based solely on water and orbital size relative to the star’s output. That would ignore important planetary characteristics, such as mass, which influences a world’s ability to hold onto an atmosphere, and which sort of atmosphere it holds. Then, there’s atmospheric composition, which greatly affects a planet’s temperature, and depends upon the planet’s gravity.

Life may not require liquid water on the surface. A number of frozen-over moons outside our own solar system’s habitable zone, such as Jupiter’s Europa and Saturn’s Enceladus, have giant buried oceans that may be capable of having evolved life as we know it: at first sight, they seem to have had warm, liquid water, for even longer than Earth. Indeed their heat is gravitationally generated, from massaging the moon with the giant planet’s gravity.

(An old consideration has also been life as we don’t know it, which would depend on something other than water as a solvent; however, the combination water-carbon seems impossible to beat in the wealth of possibilities…)

The $600 million Kepler mission launched in March 2009, following a successful pioneering French satellite, named after another astronomer, Corot. The first confirmed exoplanet was discovered at the French Observatoire de Haute Provence.  As of 1 October 2018, there are 3,851 confirmed exoplanets in 2,871 stellar systems, with 636 systems having more than one planet.

Further philosophy out of all this?

Of course!

Next: the related, and philosophically as deep as it gets Big Silence From Necessary Malevolence?

Patrice Ayme

 

 


Artificial Turf At French Bilingual School Berkeley

Artificial Turf At French Bilingual School Berkeley

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Artificial Turf At French Bilingual School Berkeley

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Patterns of Meaning

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in truth, only atoms and the void

West Hunter

Omnes vulnerant, ultima necat

GrrrGraphics on WordPress

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Skulls in the Stars

The intersection of physics, optics, history and pulp fiction

Footnotes to Plato

because all (Western) philosophy consists of a series of footnotes to Plato

Patrice Ayme's Thoughts

Striving For The Best Thinking Possible. Morality Needs Intelligence As Will Needs Mind. Intelligence Is Humanism.

Learning from Dogs

Dogs are animals of integrity. We have much to learn from them.

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Donna Swarthout

Writer, Editor, Berliner

coelsblog

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EugenR Lowy עוגן רודן

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Artificial Turf At French Bilingual School Berkeley

Artificial Turf At French Bilingual School Berkeley

Patterns of Meaning

Exploring the patterns of meaning that shape our world

Sean Carroll

in truth, only atoms and the void

West Hunter

Omnes vulnerant, ultima necat

GrrrGraphics on WordPress

www.grrrgraphics.com

Skulls in the Stars

The intersection of physics, optics, history and pulp fiction

Footnotes to Plato

because all (Western) philosophy consists of a series of footnotes to Plato

Patrice Ayme's Thoughts

Striving For The Best Thinking Possible. Morality Needs Intelligence As Will Needs Mind. Intelligence Is Humanism.

Learning from Dogs

Dogs are animals of integrity. We have much to learn from them.

ianmillerblog

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Polyhedra, tessellations, and more.

How to Be a Stoic

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coelsblog

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