Archive for the ‘Exponential’ Category

HOW MATHEMATICS EMPOWERS Souls With Wiser, More Powerful Abstractions: CONCEPTUAL DIMENSION THEORY

February 8, 2020

MATH IS A LANGUAGE WHOSE WORDS ARE NOT JUST THOUGHTS MADE OF SETS OF OBSERVATIONS, BUT COMPLICATED UNOBVIOUS LOGICAL SYSTEMS, Endowed With High Dimensions:

Abstract: What’s Math? And why does it matter?[1] Mathematics uses words denoting high dimensional concepts (defined subsequently). Those dimensions are the vertices of sophisticated logical systems. Logic itself is physics (nature), as basic as it goes. Thus mathematics is a maximally logically concentrated language which speaks of, and with, various conclusions humanity has drawn from the universe (that’s what “abstract” means: drawn away from!) Hence mathematics’ beauty, even poetry, let alone intelligence, from its enormous logical power.

Warning: Some of this essay is very basic, some on the forward edge of human understanding and will be controversial. Readers should jump harder sections.

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Mathematical concepts are hyper powerful because they are neurologically multidimensional and those dimensions are logically equivalent.

Mathematical concepts are hyper powerful because they are neurologically multidimensional and those dimensions are logically equivalent.

The power of mathematics comes from its power to abstract entire trains of thought, and more. This way is not unique to mathematics. Normal language works the same way. But mathematics is just much more powerful. As I will try to explain, the words of mathematics are much higher dimensional.

If we say “red” (in any human language), we mean electromagnetic radiation within a more or less well defined wavelength range (which can be measured in fraction of a meter, or multiple of an atom). It doesn’t matter in which human language “red” is said: it’s always the same idea: a range of frequencies.[2]

A prehistoric man may have measured “red” as the wavelength of light emitted by blood, or bauxite, or iron oxide. Not exactly the same connotation, but the same general idea: a range of electromagnetic wavelengths.

“Red” is a concept. So is a “parabola”: a concept too. But the second one is tied in, and it is, a much more complicated logic, with many aspects.

A parabola represents some sort of fixed equidistance, between one point, and a line. A hyperbola, some sort of fixed difference of the distances to two points. Two different subtle notions about distance. The two concepts are in turn full of corollaries and theorems: other unexpected at first sight consequences. Ellipses are the set of points whose sum of the distances to two points are fixed. Turns out that this is the trajectory of an object submitted to inertia counterbalanced by a force proportional to the inverse square of the distance to a central point

However a “parabola” is not just one concept, but many concepts, logics, so-called “theorems”. When you kick a soccer ball (or shoot an arrow, fire a missile or throw a stone), on a planet without atmosphere, it arcs up and comes down again, following a parabola (on a planet with atmosphere, the parabola shrivels a bit into a more complicated curve which can also be computed). A parabola is the set of point equidistant (same-distance) from a fixed line (the directrix) and a point (the focus).

A parabola has this profitable property: Any ray parallel to the axis of symmetry gets reflected off the surface straight to the focus.One can see the interest if one wants to concentrate (say) solar power, or conversely, have a focus of heat send back a beam of parallel heat… or parallel light, as in a lamp. if we slice through a cone, parallel to its side, we also get a parabola. The Ancients knew this. Menaechmus in the 4th century BC discovered a way to solve the problem of doubling the cube using parabolas (not just with compass and straight lines).

With such useful properties, parabolas are all over mathematics and physics, engineering and technology. A celestial body on a parabolic trajectory probably came from outside the solar system (and certainly so if it’s hyperbolic, the next conic section over…) Hence, when mathematicians, physicist, engineers brandish the word “parabola”, they actually brandish lots of elaborated logic, enough to fill up an entire book from senior high school mathematics. We are far here from a simple range of frequencies. So “parabola” is an abbreviation of thoughts.

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Patrice’s DIMENSIONAL POWER OF CONCEPT THEORY:

The dimension of a mathematical concept shall be equal to the number of different neurological networks its various definitions, non obviously equivalent, but mathematically equivalent, call upon

One could object to this definition that it is subjective, that, if we were much more clever, the different definitions of a given mathematical concept would be glaringly obvious, etc. However, we have reached a level of intelligence that is enough to conquer the galaxy (if we don’t self-destruct, a big if, it’s only a question of time). So we have here a particular level of intelligence which is absolutely defined (roughly).

To further dig into the  notion of “subjectivity”: the notion of “mathematically equivalent” is different from “logically equivalent”: mathematics is, partly, a social concept. For example, mathematicians did excellent infinitesimal calculus, getting great results using Descartes Algebraic Geometry, for two centuries without a rigorous definition of “calculus” (and now we have too many notions!) This is no accident, but caused by the “neural networks” definition of mathematics. When we say that mathematical concepts are made of logical assemblies of neural networks, we are also alluding to the saying that the truth is in the pudding. This was practiced before, but not explicitly said, causing confusion. Something was clearly missing. What is mathematics? I say neural networks. Before this, the best authorities on the subject had nothing very deep to say on the subject. An example is Bertrand Russel, an authority in the Foundations of Mathematics (he found a glaring problem in the foundations of Set Theory and replaced it by the Theory of Types… launching an industry of foundations of mathematics…

As Bertrand Russell put it… well before neural networks, but I long meditated that quote, bringing me where I am:

As this essay shows, and I have long held, this quote expresses a thought which, unsurprisingly, turns out to be untrue. Why? Because it excludes the neural network definition of mathematics… which I embrace (as I created it!) it’s unsurprising, because as Russell would have been the first to admit, mathematics works, thus is, he would readily admit, true. Somehow. I show how.

Here is Bertrand more fully quoted: “Pure mathematics consists entirely of assertions to the effect that, if such and such a proposition is true of anything, then such and such another proposition is true of that thing. It is essential not to discuss whether the first proposition is really true, and not to mention what the anything is, of which it is supposed to be true. […] Thus mathematics may be defined as the subject in which we never know what we are talking about, nor whether what we are saying is true. People who have been puzzled by the beginnings of mathematics will, I hope, find comfort in this definition, and will probably agree that it is accurate.”

Explanation in a more modern language which Russell, living a century ago, couldn’t have the notion of. Neural networks don’t have to prove they are true, because, as soon as they exist, they are. Mathematics is all about neural networks, proving their equivalences, or building more with them (hence the success of category theory). Hence Russell was wrong: mathematics contains absolute truths, the truths of the neural networks which depict them.

Bertrand Russell was on the trail which led where yours truly got.

Anyway the point here is to demonstrate, first of all, the role of mathematics in human intelligence, and how it relates to the universe.

That sort of dimensional approach can be extended to other concepts, for example love (sexual, parental, romantic, etc.; love is obviously in some sense very high dimensional… but not in the mathematical sense, because there are no rigorous proofs of the logical equivalence of the various notions of love (said logical equivalences making their own networks)… for the good and simple reason that they are often illusory or false, as they call upon different neurohormonal systems)

Each word is a theory. In normal language, as in mathematics. Neurologically, each word is a network. The concept of elephant is well-known to be made of various attributes, as described by blind men: a tail, tusks, legs like tree trunks, belly like a cave, ear like giant leaves, etc. And it eats trees, doesn’t forget, and can be tamed. So the concept of an elephant is a network.

A mathematical object or concept would often be similar, with various, widely different aspects… but they can be demonstrated to be all equivalent, modulo lots of logic. Math concepts are like the concept of elephant, with various aspects, but logically tied together: where the tail implies the tusks and the trunk, and the ears and the big feet. The number of these neurologically different aspects of one mathematical concept I call the conceptual dimension of that concept

Let me go on with my little example. “Red” is, literally, a one dimensional concept: a color is more or less red, as the frequency varies along the spectrum. Now a dimension of a function is simply described: a function, or a space, of n arguments, or n coordinates, is n dimensional. So how does the brain work? It has inputs and outputs. Inputs are known as senses. The senses are actually made of dedicated processing organs. For example the “visual area” has 17 or so processing sub-organs. Then end result, though, is that “Red” is PERCEIVED AS ONE INPUT. So we will call it ONE DIMENSIONAL. For that reason alone? Not quite electromagnetism literally demonstrates “red” is indeed a range of frequencies, it’s one dimensional in its fundamental input.

A “Parabola” is high dimensional. Why? It is simple, a parabola has different definitions.  “Different” means that they look nothing like each other. They can be proven to be all equivalent, through a lot of mathematics and other keen observations. However, those equivalences are not obvious. Parabolas were known to have wonderful properties… for twenty centuries… before it was discovered that they described the trajectory of a projectile submitted to gravity.

By making what he called his “War on Mars”, Kepler was able to prove that Mars followed an ellipse. However, it took another 70 years or so before newton published a more or less finished proof that Kepler’s Three Laws of planetology (including the ellipse) were equivalent to inertia plus the inverse square of the distance law. This is Newton’s greatest claim to fame (and many astronomers and mathematicians in Paris, from which came the gravitation law, would have liked to prove that… so it was not easy to do so). The bottom line is that here we have here two completely mathematically equivalent definitions and one can go from one to other, only through enormously hard work. Another definition of an ellipse, equivalent through more hard work, and that one known for 24 centuries is that it’s a particular section of a cone.

So “ellipse”, like parabola, is a concept that is at least three dimensional: it is the equivalence of three completely distinct neural networks.

Much mathematics consists in proving that completely different notions and approaches (different neural networks) are equivalent. For example, in differential geometry, the famous Atiyah–Singer index theorem, proved by Michael Atiyah and Isadore Singer (1963), states that for an elliptic differential operator on a compact manifold, the analytical index (related to the dimension of the space of solutions of some operators on the manifold) is equal to the topological index (defined in terms of some topological data/network). That equivalence in turns includes many other theorems, as special cases, and has applications to theoretical physics.

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Is mathematics the language of the universe? No. Universe don’t talk, just is. Mathematics is the smartest language of Homo Sapiens, talking about the universe in the most abstracted, thus most powerful, fashion!

Traditionally, it is said that Galileo discovered that, without air, a body would follow a parabola (artillery men had long discovered something like that was true). Galileo said: “Philosophy is written in that great book which ever lies before our eyes — I mean the universe — but we cannot understand it if we do not first learn the language and grasp the symbols, in which it is written. This book is written in the mathematical language, and the symbols are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without whose help it is impossible to comprehend a single word of it; without which one wanders in vain through a dark labyrinth.”

And so it goes, all over mathematics. The exponential is an arsenal of theorems. The square root of (-1) even more so. To understand the square root of negative numbers means to understand the complex numbers, the “largest” field (both of the latter word are themselves mathematical concepts, that is, sets of most significant theorems).

The word “red” is already a broad abstraction of a vast field of possibilities. But the exponential or the complex numbers, or any mathematical concept can symbolize entire logical systems. Exp and the complex numbers are actually connected by the famous equation: exp (ix) = cos x + i sinx… Where i is the square root of minus one. So, in particular, exp(i) = -1…

Introducing basic, crucial mathematics to the uncouth multitudes is necessary, as Plato himself proclaimed at the entrance of his Academy… Said multitudes absolutely need more intuitive grasp of mathematics to become cogent enough about the world to help sheperd our great leaders toward enough sanity to ensure survival of the species. Nice perspective on parabolas, and what the different coefficients thereof mean.

Not the easiest method to solve the quadratic equation, of course, as changing variables by taking X= (x+ b/2) as new variable is algebraically irresistible and solves the equation in 4 lines or so.

Parabolas, and ellipses (both conic sections) were central to Seventeenth Century physics.

However, in the Nineteenth century waves, rose to prominence, first with light as wave, Fourier analysis (decomposing periodic motions into sum of cosines/sines), electromagnetism. it turns out (plenty of theorems) that all these come from the exponential!

Without a thorough grasp of exponentials, phenomena such as the CO2 catastrophe, or pandemics, can only escape the understanding of the commons or god-struck politicians. Exponentials grow at an instantaneous speed equal to their instantaneous value… exactly as a bacterial colony. Most catastrophes involve exponentials. Exponentials also illustrate all sorts of decays and, glued together, the most frequent probability distributions.

***

Math beauty, the beauty of neural networks. Neural networks give us power, and we find that beautiful…

HIGH POWER CONCEPTS HAVE HIGH DIMENSION:

All this goes meta. Example: the concept of “Coronavirus” (“Crown Shaped Virus”). Antivirals against some type of Coronaviruses act against others (Remdesivir). So what is logically connected can be collectively treated. This is why broad concepts feed intelligence, thus action power.

By this I mean (rough) equivalences of foundations themselves form high dimensional conceptual objects: Category Theory is, by itself, such an object.

Another, more practical example: Infinitesimal Calculus. Infinitesimal Calculus has many different definitions, more or less equivalent, the earliest dating back to Archimedes, and then another one, which I call the Infinitesimal Geometric Calculus developed the Buridan school in the Fourteenth Century (this is the one Newton used). The more recent definitions of infinitesimals (Robinson and Al.) are from the Twenty-first Century (2006 Karel Hrbacek). This means the field is still fully active research! More dimensions to be added!

This makes Infinitesimal Calculus, according to my definition, a very high dimensional object. Refined, high dimensional thinking was of course hated by the terroristic, mentally simplistic Roman Catholic Church. Accordingly, Infinitesimals were the subject of political and religious controversies in 17th century Europe, including a ban on infinitesimals issued by clerics in Rome in 1632! (Notice that this was long before the birth of Leibniz or Newton, to whom the creation of calculus is often erroneously attributed by Anglo-German tribalists…)

Mathematics is the language whose words are ready made sets of powerful thoughts (for example word-concepts such a “parabola”, or the “exponential” come with an arsenal of thoughts and inner logic).

By learning to speak and think math, we learn a metalanguage, the most powerful language humanity has written, and keeps writing, whose elements belong to, and depict, the world. Mathematica and, even more, logics are the skeletons of physics, and the latter is how the world is made. To have more advanced thoughts on what the world is made of, they are not just the eyes, but the senses one can’t do without.

One could call mathematics the Post-Prehistoric Language. [3]

In any case, mathematics is the surest, inescapable way to more powerful thinking. [4] Even the lousiest pseudo-philosophers nowadays know some more important mathematics than Archimedes itself (a truly horrendously offensive thought!)  The more advanced thinking they got imprinted with in primary school, much of it mathematical, helps to explain why even the lousiest official thinkers nowadays are smarter than the Ancients.

When communicating mathematics, one communicates with entire, high dimensional logical systems.[5] Thus the language is hyper powerful: it has huge logical bandwidth.

Patrice Ayme

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[1] Plato famously interdicted access to his Academy to all non-mathematicians. The essay above explains why. Top philosophy can’t indulge mental retards too much, out of the lab, to study them. Mastery of contemporary math insures some minimum standard of intellectual capability.

By the way, my neurological network definition of mathematics shows that the Platonic world of math, out there was… all along inside Plato’s head. Or the heads of all mathematicians (including those in kindergarten…)

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[2] Range of frequencies is of course the post-Maxwell description/explanation… Now prehistoric man would have shrugged that he knew red when he saw it in sunsets, blood, bauxite, flowers… That comes down to the same excitement of the brain in the same way each time, a particular pattern: there is no logic to it.

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[3] “Postmodernism” means, of course, nothing. because when was “modernism”? When William The Conqueror suggested that the Earth turned around the Sun, before freeing all the slaves of England while his friend the Abbot Berengar was suggesting that Reason was what was meant by God (to the impotent fury of the Vatican)? That was during the Eleventh Century… Whereas, “Prehistory”, defined as what was before the Neolithic (because the Neolithic is entering history, thanks to lots of archeology) is certainly a well-defined notion. Prehistoric men knew concepts such as red, as in bloody sunsets, very well. But they had little notion of parabolas… except of course, in practice, when they threw a projectile onto a prey or predator…

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[4] Learning math doesn’t guarantee wisdom, especially not anti-fascist wisdom, to wit, Plato. The deplorable “modern” case being Kant. Kant started as an astronomer, a co-discoverer of the concept of galaxy. He should have stuck to that, instead of helping turn hundreds of millions of germans (over a few generations) into moralizing murder robots.

Many people are full of hatred, and they don’t even suspect it. Worse: the Zeitgeist, the spirit of the times, is to pretend that there is such a thing as good, moralizing people, bereft of hatred. A contradiction in adjecto

Philosophically, of course Kant was mostly an enslaving pre-Nazi robot as his most important characteristic, proving mathematics produces plenty of idiot savants. Nietzsche, an excellent philosopher, was no mathematician, but a philologist (a lover of logic, of the interpretation of the meaning of texts; recently the term hermeneutics is preferred because it sounds more savant)

Descartes, of course was one the greatest minds and a very astute psychologist… and used psychology to further math… by forcing math in more useful logic… something I also advocate in my stance relative to infinity! A lot of top scientists were top philosopher, having to invent new philosophy to invent new physics (Maxwell’s identification of electromagnetism and light, Boltzmann’s murky states and Poincare’s local space and time being obvious examples) And of course the Foundations of Quantum Physics are a philosophical abyss questioning time, space, and reality itself into an uncertain, not to say ethereal, medium…

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[5] The dimension of a logical system is the minimal number of axioms in its axiomatics. Don’t look it up: I invented the notion. It boils down to the usual definition of dimension in a manifold (by subtracting, axioms in common).

Super Earths, Or How The Exponential Function Can Matter

April 23, 2018

We live in the times where exponentials have come to rule, as they never ruled before. Ignore at the risk of everything we claim to hold dear. As mathematically challenged Silicon Valley nerds put it, all too simplistically, the coming “singularity” looms. Simple minds do not much understanding create, though, so here a little elaboration…

An example of exponentials in action, is graciously offered by so-called “Super Earths“, giant versions of Earths, hundreds of which have been discovered in our neighborhood.

Before I get into this, a short lesson on the exponential.

The Ancient Greeks thought they knew mathematics, but they were prisoners of linear thinking (especially after the top intellectuals spurned non-Euclidean geometry and arithmetic). The exponential is the most obvious, most crucial to understand, most vital to handle example of nonlinear thinking.

An exponential is any function which grows proportionally to itself.

Our present “leaders” (Putin, Trump, Xi, Macron, etc.), and their underlings have no idea what an exponential is, and that it feeds on itself.

Civilizations get ambushed by exponentials. This is why they so often irresistibly decay: the effect is blatant, be it the Late Roman empire, Tang China, the Maya…

***

Socrates:The unexamined life is not worth living“. That was HIS (wise) feeling. His own feeling. Others don’t have to share it. Actually vain, self-admiring, erroneous, hateful people detest nothing more than self-examination. They deeply dislike, hinder those, and what, promotes self-examination.

And tell me, Socrates, you who didn’t like knowledge you didn’t already have, and you thought everybody had, when did you learn about the exponential function? How can you know something that important you never even suspected existed? And, absent that tool of the spirit, you thought you could examine everything? How stupid was that? And you, out there, the ignorant admirers of Socrates and his ilk: you don’t even have the excuse to have been dead for 24 centuries! To extract you from the gutter, seize the exponential!

***

After discovering a few thousands exoplanets, Super Earths are, so far, more frequent than simple Earths (it may be a bias from our present telescopes, but I don’t think so…). If the Super Earth is slightly bigger than Earth, depending upon the nature of its core, its surface gravity doesn’t have to be much higher than Earth (I computed). However, the present article considers Super Earths were the gravity is much higher than on Earth…

“Super-Earth” planets are gigantic versions of Earth. In some ways, they are more likely to be habitable than Earth-size worlds: their thicker atmospheres protect them better from radiations, either from their parent stars, supernovae, gamma ray bursts, galactic core explosions, etc.. However, it would be difficult for any inhabitants on these exoplanets to access to space. At least with known, or imaginable technologies.

To launch a vehicle as light as the Apollo moon mission capsule, a rocket on a super-Earth such as (potentially inhabitable) Kepler 20b would require more than double the escape velocity.

To leave Earth (“⊕”)’s gravitational influence, a rocket needs to achieve at minimum the escape velocity vesc = s 2GM⊕ R⊕ ∼ 11.2 km s−1 (2) for Earth, and vesc ∼ 27.1 km s−1 for a 10 M⊕, 1.7 R⊕ Super-Earth similar to Kepler-20 b. Computation shows one would need a mass of about 400,000 metric tons, mostly due to the exponential demand of fuel. That’s 5% of the mass of the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt (still by far the Earth’s most massive monument, excluding utilitarian walls and dams).

That means a chemical rocket there should have one hundred times the mass of one here (Apollo’s Saturn V launcher was 3,000 tons). However, that’s not a show stopper: our largest ocean-going ships are more massive than that, and a massive rocket is imaginable. So Hippke is not correct when he says that:

“On more-massive planets, spaceflight would be exponentially more expensive,” said study author Michael Hippke, an independent researcher affiliated with the Sonneberg Observatory in Germany. “Such civilizations would not have satellite TV, a moon mission or a Hubble Space Telescope.

This is of great practical interest. Research has revealed that Super Earths are abundant, and obvious targets for human colonization. They can reach up to 10 times the mass of our own Earth (after that, they retain light gases, and turn into mini Neptunes, unsuitable for direct colonization, although Pandora like scenarios are highly plausible). Many super-Earths apparently lie in the habitable zones of their stars, where temperatures can theoretically support liquid water on the planetary surface and thus, potentially, life as it is known on Earth. Although I have had reservations about this: I view the presence of a nuclear reactor inside the planet as necessary for life, since it provides with a magnetic shield, and the recycling of the atmosphere through plate tectonic, let alone continents… (Being in the water belt and the nuclear belt simultaneously is a miracle Earth’s biosphere profits from.)

This being said, it is true that some ways to access space that we potentially have, won’t happen on Super Earths. Rockets work better in the vacuum of space than in an atmosphere: super-Earthlings might want to launch from a mountaintop. However, the strong gravitational pull of super-Earths would squash down super Alps (it’s a pure application of Quantum mechanics). Super towers won’t be be feasible, either…

Using space elevators traveling on giant cables rising out of the atmosphere depends upon the strength of the cable material. The strongest (per unit of mass) material known today, carbon nanotubes, is just barely strong enough for Earth’s gravity (it is not at this point possible to imagine stronger materials, putting in doubt the feasibility of space elevators on super-Earths). Here is Michael Hippke (Submitted on 12 Apr 2018):

Spaceflight from Super-Earths is difficult:

Many rocky exoplanets are heavier and larger than the Earth, and have higher surface gravity. This makes space-flight on these worlds very challenging, because the required fuel mass for a given payload is an exponential function of planetary surface gravity, ∼3.3exp(g0). We find that chemical rockets still allow for escape velocities on Super-Earths up to 10 times Earth mass. More massive rocky worlds, if they exist, would require other means to leave the planet, such as nuclear propulsion.

 Comments: Serious version of the April Fool’s idea (arXiv:1803.11384). Submitted on April 4th 2018 Subjects: Popular Physics (physics.pop-ph); Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP) Cite as: arXiv:1804.04727 [physics.pop-ph] (or arXiv:1804.04727v1 [physics.pop-ph] for this version)
1. INTRODUCTION Do we inhabit the best of all possible worlds (Leibnitz 1710)? From a variety of habitable worlds that may exist, Earth might well turn out as one that is marginally habitable. Other, more habitable (“superhabitable”) worlds might exist (Heller & Armstrong 2014). Planets more massive than Earth can have a higher surface gravity, which can hold a thicker atmosphere, and thus better shielding for life on the surface against harmful cosmic rays. Increased surface erosion and flatter topography could result in an “archipelago planet” of shallow oceans ideally suited for biodiversity. There is apparently no limit for habitability as a function of surface gravity as such (Dorn et al. 2017). Size limits arise from the transition between Terran and Neptunian worlds around 2 ± 0.6 R⊕ (Chen & Kipping 2017). The largest rocky planets known so far are ∼ 1.87 R⊕, ∼ 9.7 M⊕ (Kepler-20 b, Buchhave et al. 2016). When such planets are in the habitable zone, they may be inhabited. Can “Super-Earthlings” still use chemical rockets to leave their planet? This question is relevant for SETI and space colonization (Lingam 2016; Forgan 2016, 2017).

***

Pessimistically, Hippke considered another possibility, a staple of science-fiction which originated in the very serious “Orion” project of the 1950s, an apocalyptic period: nuclear pulse propulsion. It works by detonating thousands of atom bombs below a shield cum shock absorber attached to the vehicle, hurling it through space. This explosive propulsion has much more lifting power than chemical rockets, and might be the only way for a civilization to leave a planet more than 10 times Earth’s mass, Hippke (naively) said.

However, slaying the radioactive dragon he himself brought up, such a nuclear-powered spacecraft would pose not only technical challenges but political ones as well, he said: “A launch failure, which typically happens with a 1 percent risk, could cause dramatic effects on the environment. I could only imagine that a society takes these risks in a flagship project where no other options are available, but the desire is strong — for example, one single mission to leave their planet and visit a moon.”

Unwittingly, Hippke then demonstrates the danger of the single mind (in this case, his!) Indeed the most obvious way to use nuclear propulsion is simply to run a liquid, even water, through the core of a nuclear fission reactor. That was tested, and it works extremely well… and very safely! It’s much less prone to failure than a chemical rocket.  On a planet with ten times the Earth’s surface, there would be plenty of space to do such dirty launches by the thousands.

Besides, it may possible to engineer absolutely giant thermonuclear PROPULSION reactors (thermonuclear fusion is easier, the larger the reactor: the exponential at work again; if we just made a fusion reactor that was large enough, it would certainly work). The radioactivity generated would be neglectable.

So we don’t have to worry about colonizing Super Earths… We just have to worry about weight (that is, surface gravity)….

But, here, now, we have to worry about all those exponentials going crazy. Last I checked, the Arctic ice was running one million square miles below its old minimum: at some point the so-far linear decrease of Arctic ice is going to decrease exponentially, as warming there is highly self-feeding (that’s why it runs already at twice the rate of the rest of the planet…).

And as usual, let’s remember what the arrogant, stupid imperial Romans never learned, and the Maya never reached: inventing completely new, liberating, energizing technologies is how, and the only way how, to break the strangulation from the ecological, political, economical and moral exponentials which smother civilizations. A most recent example is diffuse, dim light solar cells, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), a tech already in full deployment, which has just made spectacular progress in the lab.

Even language acquisition is exponential… Let alone thought system acquisition. You want to examine life, in ultimate depth? Learn to think exponentially!

The coming “singularity” looms. How to manage it? First by understanding what makes it tick, exponentials.

Patrice Aymé

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NotPoliticallyCorrect

Human Biodiversity, IQ, Evolutionary Psychology, Epigenetics and Evolution

Political Reactionary

Dark Enlightenment and Neoreaction

Of Particular Significance

Conversations About Science with Theoretical Physicist Matt Strassler

Rise, Republic, Plutocracy, Degeneracy, Fall And Transmutation Of Rome

Power Exponentiation By A Few Destroyed Greco-Roman Civilization. Are We Next?

SoundEagle 🦅ೋღஜஇ

Where The Eagles Fly . . . . Art Science Poetry Music & Ideas

Artificial Turf At French Bilingual School Berkeley

Artificial Turf At French Bilingual School Berkeley

Patterns of Meaning

Exploring the patterns of meaning that shape our world

Sean Carroll

in truth, only atoms and the void

West Hunter

Omnes vulnerant, ultima necat

GrrrGraphics on WordPress

www.grrrgraphics.com

Skulls in the Stars

The intersection of physics, optics, history and pulp fiction

Footnotes to Plato

because all (Western) philosophy consists of a series of footnotes to Plato

Patrice Ayme's Thoughts

Striving For Ever Better Thinking. Humanism Is Intelligence Unleashed. From Intelligence All Ways, Instincts & Values Flow, Even Happiness. History and Science Teach Us Not Just Humility, But Power, Smarts, And The Ways We Should Embrace. Naturam Primum Cognoscere Rerum

Learning from Dogs

Dogs are animals of integrity. We have much to learn from them.

ianmillerblog

Smile! You’re at the best WordPress.com site ever

NotPoliticallyCorrect

Human Biodiversity, IQ, Evolutionary Psychology, Epigenetics and Evolution

Political Reactionary

Dark Enlightenment and Neoreaction

Of Particular Significance

Conversations About Science with Theoretical Physicist Matt Strassler

Rise, Republic, Plutocracy, Degeneracy, Fall And Transmutation Of Rome

Power Exponentiation By A Few Destroyed Greco-Roman Civilization. Are We Next?

SoundEagle 🦅ೋღஜஇ

Where The Eagles Fly . . . . Art Science Poetry Music & Ideas

Artificial Turf At French Bilingual School Berkeley

Artificial Turf At French Bilingual School Berkeley

Patterns of Meaning

Exploring the patterns of meaning that shape our world

Sean Carroll

in truth, only atoms and the void

West Hunter

Omnes vulnerant, ultima necat

GrrrGraphics on WordPress

www.grrrgraphics.com

Skulls in the Stars

The intersection of physics, optics, history and pulp fiction

Footnotes to Plato

because all (Western) philosophy consists of a series of footnotes to Plato

Patrice Ayme's Thoughts

Striving For Ever Better Thinking. Humanism Is Intelligence Unleashed. From Intelligence All Ways, Instincts & Values Flow, Even Happiness. History and Science Teach Us Not Just Humility, But Power, Smarts, And The Ways We Should Embrace. Naturam Primum Cognoscere Rerum

Learning from Dogs

Dogs are animals of integrity. We have much to learn from them.

ianmillerblog

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