Posts Tagged ‘Civilization’

Understand, Predict, Innovate Judiciously or Die: Why The Maya Collapsed

May 12, 2021

Civilizations are dynamically technological, or they are not, and they fall, like a cyclist trying to stand on just two wheels without moving. It is actually worse than that: the man-made ecology, the bicycle any civilization is riding, is always changing, as the civilization depletes whatever it is exploiting.

And the more successful it is, the more the ecology a civilization depends upon gets depleted. It is not just a question of having limits to growth in general, but of a progressive collapse of the particular type of growth which brought success… to a given civilization, so far. When old growth is sick and exhausted, one has to get a divorce, and adopt a new growth model which is smarter. Staying faithful to an ecology one has killed, brings only more killing. We will focus here on the Mayan collapse which overall, lasted three centuries, and was characterized by a megadrought. Changes of Mayan behavior occurred during the collapse, but they proved insufficient to stop it. One can compare with other (partial) collapses, the most famous being that of the Roman empire in the Fifth Century.

The change from the Latin-Roman Catholic civilization to the Latin-Frankish civilization which succeeded it was primarily a change of growth model: the basic law, the spirit of Roman Republican law, was unchanged. The Franks adopted a superior growth model (in this order: religious tolerance, more secular education, no more slavery).

Eurasia and the “West” provide many examples of this, changing growth models in a smart way. This is why and how “the West” and East Asia came to dominate the world. A case in point is the contemporary rise of China, which, in light of full Chinese history and the secular technological-legal mood which often drove it, is more of the same “socialism with Chinese characteristics”… which is at the core of the Western success too.

***

The Maya provide a warning of what happens when one succumbs to hubris while lacking long duration smarts:

The Maya did not understand, predict, and innovate in a timely manner, and hubristically adopted an erroneous growth model, making a bad situation worse. By the Eighth Century, around 750 CE, Mayan society had thrived for more than 2,000 years. The population was at an all-time high: high-tech mapping suggests that at least 10 million people may have lived within the Maya Lowlands alone. 40 major new stone buildings were built every year (it used to be 10, it would fall back to zero after 900 CE). Mayans were experts in astronomy, mathematics, architecture, with a complex language of written symbols. The city-state of Tikal comprised more than 61,000 stone buildings.

Then a megadrought struck. It was the worst drought in 7,000 years, it lasted more than two centuries, and became terrible after 1000 CE (when most of the Mayan civilization had already disappeared). That megadrought was partly a consequence of human, Mayan, activity (greenhouse warming plus deforestation so drastic fundamental some raw materials were gone). Devastating wars of cities against cities, rebellions, killing of the incompetent elites, and the burning of cities followed.

Population collapsed. Less than 200 years later, the core of the Maya civilization (the southern lowlands) was no more (most of the rest would progressively go down in the next two centuries, as the drought kept on going). A civilization that had stretched across southern Mexico and Central America was nearly completely gone (the Conquistadores would meet its haggard remnants). 

The Mayan collapse was not caused by invasion (Toltec influence or not)… whereas Athens, Rome, Constantinople, the Xi Xia, and of course the Mexicans, fell partly, mostly, or completely, from invasion, the Mayan collapse is a study in self-generated devastation. (It is not that the Mayans were particularly stupid; just the opposite: they succeeded to create a massive civilization in an unlikely place, thanks to advanced technology, massively deployed; but that civilization was vulnerable: there had been a first collapse after a megadrought around 200 CE; see graph below.)

There are a number of theories to explain what happened to the Maya. However, from my point  of view it is possible to gather all these theories in just a single logic. The Mayan collapse was greatly an implosion of a highly technological society from ecological collapse with population, war and hubris loss of control as triggers: the social and religious implosions are consequences of the technological implosion

Graph from Professor Kennett, expert of the subject. Several things from it. Around 200 CE there was a first drought, and a first collapse. It is imaginable that the causes were the same, and that the absence of books and a strong intellectual class led to a repeat. When the late classic collapse started the drought was not that bad and just reflected poorly from the wet 2 centuries prior. However, the wars and the ecological devastation this relative difficulty caused made the situation way worse. Then the terrible drought after 1000 CE prevented any recovery.

There is evidence that the fall of Rome shares some of the elements of the Maya collapse:

Let me repeat this slowly: the Mayan ecological collapse started before the full impact of the mega drought. It was obviously caused by a population explosion in combination with mismanagement (namely Mayan wars; in the Seventh Century, Tikal lost its prominence thanks in part to an uppity warrior queen from a lesser city; Tikal would regain the upper hand, but with a mood that had changed towards more hubris than the climate could take).

Europe would experience something similar around 1300 CE. In the last two decades before 1300 CE, there were a few severe winters (foreshocks of the Little Ice Age). At the time, ushered by a technological and rational revolution, the European population was exploding, severely stressing the ecology. Successful intense agriculture and construction devoured the forests (a bit like Brazil nowadays)…

However, instead of sitting on their hands or going to war against each other, the European governments took ferocious countermeasures around 1300 CE, outright banning people from some mountainous regions to limit erosion and deforestation (Japan did something similar at the same time). When the Little Ice Age struck, followed by the Plague of 1348 CE, half of the population was killed, but society itself, give or take a few roasted noble families, and a few thousands peasants butchered, in the Jacqueries… society itself survived intact. Actually the economy rebounded and the Franco-French and Anglo-French gaily persisted into fighting each other for the control of France and Britain.  

Rome is another case of ecological implosion: clearly the metal mining of Rome collapsed a full century before the empire started to collapse socially, financially, militarily, and into barracks’ emperors anarchy. We know that Roman metal mining went down before anything else went clearly very wrong, by studying traces of metal in Greenland ice cores.

Why would the collapse of metal mining bring Rome down? Rome high tech society was extremely dependent upon metals. No more metal, no more economy, currency, military… or even roofs (!) When one reads Viking sagas, one is struck by the importance of mining, swords and forging. Superlative swords had names and were passed over the generations, and between clans. Rome had, by far, the largest army in the world all equipped with swords, helmets, armor, and other metallic objects. A Roman emperor would come to Rome in the Seventh Century to strip the metallic roofs, to make weapons to resist the Muslim invasion.

***

Often triumphant technology creates the conditions for its own failure. As shown by the Maya:

The Mayan irrigation system was gigantic. It used special materials. The Maya’s home was a tough environment plagued by droughts: what is called a seasonal desert. The land that they farmed was often porous limestone, rocky terrain with the water table often 100 meters below the surface, but also massive wetlands. How did they manage to feed their huge population in this chaotic environment?

It is estimated that the Mayan population may have been above 18 millions… Well, to start with, Mayans used the swamps, next to which their cities were located. About 40% of the Yucatán Peninsula is swamp today. The Maya mucked out the ditches, and tossed the soil onto the adjacent land, creating elevated fields which would kept the root systems of their crops above the waterlogged soil, while allowing access to the irrigation water. They also drained some land outright. That irrigated land is hundreds of kilometers across. Sixty or so cities each with a population of 60,000 to 70,000, sprouted during two centuries of abnormally wet weather, setting the Maya for a fall. 

On satellite pictures forests around Mayan sites look discoloured. On the ground remnants of orchards and edible plants are still in abundance.

Mayan lands are now a sea of green forest. However, their appearance in the Seventh Century was that of a man-made landscape. By 700 CE the Maya had completely run out of their main construction trees. It has been suggested that massive deforestation helped cause a megadrought. When the elites proved they had no solution but war of all against all, devastation followed.

The Mayan megadrought was caused mostly, or at least severely aggravated, by human ecological devastation. 

Not all megadroughts are that way. Across the Mediterranean and west Asia, the effects of the 4,200-3,900 years Before Present megadrought included synchronous collapse of the Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia, the Old Kingdom in Egypt and Early Bronze Age settlements in Anatolia, the Aegean and the Levant. That megadought left marks all over the planet, including in Alaska and the Yukon. There was an estimated 30-50% reduction in precipitation delivered by the Mediterranean westerlies in the eastern hemisphere, where they provide for dry-farming and irrigation agriculture across the Aegean, Levant, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, and Iran. There was a synchronous disruptions for the Indian Summer Monsoon. That was clearly a larger scale disaster where the human influence is not obvious… keeping in mind that a greenhouse caused by the rise of human agriculture, and herding which may have prevented what would have been otherwise significant cooling, 8,000 Before Present.

The Mayan megadrought was roughly coincidental with the “Middle Age Optimum”, when a warmer clime enriched Europe as glaciers retreated spectacularly (and the Viking got to Greenland and America). the phenomena are probably related (science to come). But the point is that Mayan agriculture made a bad situation way worse.

***

Agriculture Can Cause Ecological Devastation:

… This is something that the promoters of agriculture as a panacea keep on forgetting. Plants interact with the atmosphere and the climate. Large dark plants—such as dense tropical forest—absorb a lot of energy from the Sun. At the same time, they prevent much evaporation, thanks to their shade: a tropical forest is darker than a cathedral. Tropical forests restitute the sun energy, and the moisture, in the evening, making warm moist air rise high; it falls back as rain. 

Lighter colored plants (crops and dry yellow grasses like wheat) reflect some, and sometimes most energy. They act like snow, rising the albedo of the land, sending back sunlight energy to space. 

When a forest is replaced by thinner, less massive and less shady, lighter colored plants, the land reflects more sunlight, which cools the atmosphere (because the ground does not warm up, filling up with sun energy to give it back later). Cool air sinks, while water vapor needs to rise and condense to create a rainstorm. Without warm, unstable air rising into the atmosphere, rainstorms became less common. 

The lack of rain helps raise temperatures on land. When energy from the Sun reaches the ground directly, it either bakes the ground or it causes water to evaporate from the soil or transpire from plants. With forests producing less moisture and croplands holding less water, droughts deepened as more and more of the Sun’s energy heated the ground. Thus deforestation makes  droughts worse, and may even create a desert. An excellent example is an Hawaiian island which was deprived of its forest, and is now a baked red piece of land with low bushes, Kaho’olawe. 

In ancient times, the Maya had practiced good forestry management. They were not allowed to cut down the sacred groves. That changed during the Late Classic period with the adventures of Jasaw Chan K’awiil. The Tikal Maya had been defeated and had fallen to second-rate status prior to his ascendancy. Jasaw Chan K’awiil led an army to the competing city, Calakmul, captured its ruler, bound him, brought him back and sacrificed him. There was plenty of instability at the times, including the rise of ferocious warrior queens; one queen built the longest plastered white road going north among orchards and cornfields… to enable her army to go defeat a rising northern city, Chichen Itza.

In any case, Tikal had a one century hiatus characterized with neighboring competing cities having plenty of warrior-queens (at least ten). So agriculture can cause devastation and women can mean trouble… Queen Bathilde of the Franks outlawed slavery, successfully, not because she was weak, but because she was stronger than the (male) Chinese emperors who tried the same. Some of the pseudo-“woke” may be be rendered too awake from this essay….

Nice Quetzal hat… Maya Holy Snake Lord known as Lady K’abel who ruled El Perú-Waka’, a city-state one hundred kilometers west of Tikal…. for more than 20 years with her husband, King K’inich Bahlam II. She was the military governor of the Wak kingdom for her family, the imperial house of the Snake King, and she carried the title “Kaloomte,” translated as “Supreme Warrior,” higher in authority than her husband, the king. This representation is not a figment of imagination: we have actually ceramic figurines of her!… And much documentation besides. The exact chronology of what happened is not fully clear yet, but plenty enough for the theme of this essay!

After these wars between cities, the Maya rebuilt the city of Tikal in a way never seen before. They began building huge temples that required considerable resources, especially large, straight trees whose wood could withstand the weight of tons of stone. Their choices were limited to two types of strong trees.

Jasaw Chan K’awiil tapped into their sacred groves to do this. The stands of virgin timber were more than 200 years old in some areas. After building a few of the temples, the Maya ran out of timber from the Manilkara zapota (sapodilla) tree. That wood is easy to work, until it dries up and becomes very strong. It’s denser than water. Then they switched to an inferior tree —Haematoxylon campechianum, logwood or inkwood — which is found in swamps. This had adverse consequences on the maintenance or expansion of the irrigation system.

Tikal’s irrigation system was high tech. It contained at least eight large dams, the largest with 75,000 tons of water, was used as a causeway linking two parts of the city. Dams were equipped with filtration sand boxes, to produce clean water. The quartz sand is not found in the Tikal area; it was imported from more than 30 kilometers away.

How permanent was the change the Mayan civilization at its apogee inflicted on Yucatan? Climatologist Ben Cook from NASA compared climate conditions during the late Mayan era with conditions during the early colonial era (1500-1650 CE), when land use was at a minimum and forests had regrown over Central America. The warming and drying trend had disappeared. 

However the Mayan civilization had not recovered its splendor: after 1200 CE and until the Conquistadores appeared, it was a shadow of its former self, the population being perhaps just a tenth of what it used to be… But it was not for lack of aggressivity: a severe and vast ambush was set by Mayans for the Conquistadores who had to flee back to their boats… And the last free Mayan city, Nojpeten, would fall only in 1697. Some have suggested that the remaining Maya went to the coast, where the Spanish found them. It is fascinating to see that the Mayan civilization couldn’t get restarted: the numerous giant cities were gone for good. But this is often the case of civilizational collapses…

What probably happened is that the Mayan way of life was a huge system which needed a technological know-how which had been acquired during millennia, and then was lost. A broken system can’t be reinstated overnight: the system may have been elaborated over centuries (the case of Rome, Athens)… or even millennia: the case of Mesopotamia, Egypt… And the MesoAmerican civilizations. 

Moreover books are important, as they store information, and not just the concept of the proverbial wheel. This has long been known: when Rome annihilated Carthage, all Punic books were destroyed. Except one: a treaty on agriculture. And indeed the Romans would make Africa a Roman granary, the region became more productive than it would be until the arrival of French. 

The Greek dark ages after the adventures of the Trojan War lasted 4 centuries. However, Western Europe and China have proven quite collapse resistant, probably for having cultural systems smarter than most, thanks to all the books… and aware of collapse, thus keen to take resistant measures. For example when the “First” Qin emperor ordered books to be destroyed, especially of the 100 philosophical schools, many Chinese knew what to do: they copied and buried the books. 

In the 1970s, most Maya scholars concluded that the demise of the Classic Period Lowland Maya was the result of complex systems interactions. Another way to put it is that a civilization has a mind of its own

A civilization doesn’t truly collapse until its culture and know-how have been eradicated. In the case of the Maya remnants of the culture survived (they still knew how to write codices)… but what did not survive was how and why to make Yucatan work, as it did at the apex of civilization.

Could the Maya have prevented their collapse? Some will shake their heads and observe that Mayans would have had to understand science we are barely establishing now pertaining to drought and deforestation. Some of the conclusions above have a fair amount of guesswork, philosophy and modelling, and a few obstinate ones would disagree. However, this guesswork, this philosophy was done in Europe in 1300 CE, and a terminal ecological crisis avoided.

So let me tell a personal anecdote: the philosophical method rises the personal and anecdotal to the general and systemic. When I was in Africa I saw municipal authorities cut a number of magnificent trees. Apparently, inspired by a devious sense of esthetics, they had decided an immense plaza looked even better by making it more desolate. I was shocked, and revolted. How could Senegalese, in a country that was obviously desiccating, cut trees which provided shade, cooling and moisture? Tropical trees can have these huge, incredible thick oily leaves which block sunlight. For me it was glaring that this policy favored desertification, and I had seen many examples of it around Senegal already, so I viewed it as a systemic policy symbolizing a perverse mentality. I was ten years old. So if a ten year old can figure out, that cutting trees dries the climate, and causes a desert, no wonder more ancient Mayans protected sacred groves. And then the question becomes how come Tikal changed ecological policy? The answer is the war mood and the hubris it brings: flushed by taking enormous risks defeating their enemies, Tikal leaders kept on taking risks, this time with the ecology, flaunting, to themselves and others, their covenant with god(s). 

Human reality works that way: exaggerated behavior, thanks to hubris and provocation, fail, fix it, fly again. This is how humanity learns… in a tribal setting. Civilizations can also learn that way. In the best places of Eurasia, like the Fertile Crescent, the Latium, India, China. In such places of Eurasia, the collapse of one civilization taught others nearby: this is the story of the Middle East where civilizations kept on crashing and rising again, until the double headed shock of Islam, followed by the Mongols (after that it was pretty much all the way down)…

But it’s not how all civilizations can learn. A civilization can become such an immensely complicated systems, that, once broken, it can’t be readily reconstituted... Such is the sad story of the Maya.

Patrice Ayme

How And Why Civilizational Tech Drive Was Launched By Francia

February 7, 2021

Educated people are supposed to not know at all, whatsoever, how European civilization got launched after the Greco-Roman collapse. They never heard of the Franks, nor should they, because too much LEF, Liberty Equality Fraternity upsets their masters of the Global Deep Plutocracy. So the US Politically Correct have been trained to sneer when hearing of France, and how European civilization arose after Rome collapsed is not supposed to be interesting, or even a mystery. It just happened and the Anglo-Saxons did it: Shakespeare, Newton, Darwin. Then came Washington and Lincoln. However this picture is fake, false, and starting to crack. Even the San Francisco school board is starting to understand what I am talking about. So let me help some more by adding elements of crude reality…

The mood of technological revolution we presently enjoy in this civilization, even and especially in China was France based. More exactly, Francia based. Of course, this also depends what definition of France one uses: the general one valid from 500 CE to 1200 CE, not some fictionalized American primary school.

As I already wrote above, most Americans are thoroughly conditioned to be unaware that the Francia of the Franks created and united Europe long enough for this assertion to be true. To understand this better one has to look into Critical Race Theory and apply it to plutocratic domination.

Clovis takes a bath in the middle of winter… Thus imposing his common sense view of Catholicism on the Roman empire…

Americans, hopefully, are aware of a couple of centuries of US history, or four of them counting from 1619 CE, when racial based slavery was instituted in English America. Frankish control of Europe lasted several times as long, long enough to invent the basis of today’s civilization. The roots of American civilization are in Francia, and that of course infuriates the Global Deep Plutocracy.

Modern France, much of the core of the Francia of the Franks contributed enormously to modern science and technology. However that does not mean this is still going on. Amusingly, both mRNA and the first applications thereof (a vaccine, 30 years ago, which caused allergy problems) were French discoveries (Nobel for mRNA to Lwof, Monod and Jacob). However present France, dominated by MBAs, ENAs and lawyers spent way too little in research and does not have a French-made vaccine. However, that is a state policy, and French research stays alive: a French start-up, financed by Great Britain, got a huge order from Boris Johnson’s government (NOT from the present day French government, which is led by a young M&A banker, and revolving door artist).

Ah, but how, in this perspective, did the pro-technology, pro-knowledge start in Francia? From first beating back the insanity of Christianism with common sense. Told that Christ had been condemned to crucifixion Frankish king and Roman imperator and consul Clovis quipped:”It would not have happened if me and my Franks had been there!”

Second the Franks beat back the ignorance of children by encouraging religious establishments to teach all children secularly.

Third, Queen Bathilde of the Franks outlawed trading as slaves citizens of the empire. The only way out was to innovate cognitively, socially and technologically. A practical consequence was that Europe exploded in hundreds of sovereignties (although the Roman emperor or the French king were supposedly the ultimate authorities).
The dispersion and localization of authority brought some sort of de facto democracy by local responsibilization.

***

To make sure of infuriating some more the ignorant, I answered the following stupid question: Which country generally has better technology between France and Germany? It is a silly question because Francia created Germania: a notion so correct, it infuriated the Nazis. The Franks even created the written German language (under Charlemagne). As if to foster some more this correct observation, Germany proper, as a country, or more exactly empire (“Reich”), was created in 1871 CE, in Versailles…

***

Most engineering was invented in France, or by the French, including the steam engine (Papin, 17C, although he was then working in Germany!), chemistry (Lavoisier, 18C), hot air balloons, first automobiles (18C), plane (Ader, 19 C), the first helicopter, and transistor (1948, although the Nobel was given to Americans who didn’t invent the transistor, there were already patents, and some of the inventors working for the French company which mass-produced transistors in 1949 were Germans).

Hey, even Analytic Geometry (Descartes) or Calculus (Fermat)! And Buridan discovered “Newton’s” Second Law… Three centuries before Isaac was born. Did I mention evolution? The theory was established by research professors Lamarck and his enemy Cuvier… Before the amateur Darwin was even born (Darwin had to go to the university of Edinburgh with Lyell to learn Lamarck’s’ evolution…)

To augment the sneering from the pleasantly enraged ignorant, I will point out to the great Frankish bioengineering creations of the First Millennium: among them, huge horses… more efficient than oxen for ploughing.

Speaking of ploughing, the Franks’ demographic expansion rested on their enormous heavy ploughs made of dense steel which were able to overturn the rich dense soils of the Northern European plains. That was the best steel in the world, and soon hydraulic hammers were necessary to forge it. Cathedrals then arose with their walls of light made of metal and glass. It was known as “Frank” style, until a 16C italian who detested the French called it “Gothic” (because the Franks had destroyed the Goths, Visigoths and Ostrogoths… And wiped them out of history). The Franks also developed new cultivars of beans in the Tenth Century, which came to be known as “full of beans”. Beans are nutritious and full of proteins… The mood of invention arose from the abolition of slavery and the practical existence of local democracy.

Recent Nobel attributions in physics consecrated French breakthroughs which found immediate applications in ubiquitous electronics. Tellingly, Giant Magnetic Resistance was discovered in 1988 independently by the groups of Albert Fert of the University of Paris-Sud, France, and Peter Grünberg of Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany. The practical significance of this experimental discovery was recognized by the Nobel Prize in Physics awarded to Fert and Grünberg in 2007. GMR was used in hard disk drive, until it was replaced by TMR, Tunnel Magnetic Resistance, an effect was originally discovered in 1975 by Michel Jullière (University of Rennes, France) in Fe/GeO/Co-junctions at 4.2 K.

But yes, it is the US Big Tech led by college dropouts, which makes all the money and the glory they redirect at themselves, to augment further their monopoly and propaganda powers…

Now there is pretty much a fusion between French and German, or more generally, European, engineering, through the likes of MBDA (a missile company with state of the art missiles), or Airbus. The French though have a military-industrial complex with for their nuclear forces which is unique in Europe, and the only one in the West, with that of the USA, of course. (Britain has a nuclear deterrent reduced to strategic submarines equipped with US Trident missiles; the French make their own missiles and submarines, acknowledged to be the best in the world, and they have their own air based nuclear arm).

The intellectual tradition of France was born in the Sixth Century, when the Frankish empire told the Pope that Frankish bishops would organize secular education, in spite of Pope Gregory the Great’s lethal threats against his own bishops. In the following centuries, it only grew. By the 8C, all religious establishment had to teach secularly all children, by law. In Paris the Cathedral School grew into the world’s first university (it became physically independent in the 12C when the present cathedral replaced the old one).

The intellectual dominance of Paris was acknowledged by 1000 CE. It was called, at the time, “translatio studii”, the translation of studies from Athens to Paris. In quick order, the Franks/Normans reconquered Sicily and Southern Italy from the Muslims, and England from the Anglo-Saxon-Viking quarrelous mix which was messily ruling there (1066 CE)… In 1204 CE, a rogue French army took Constantinople, in an unfortunate victory of French secularism over Orthodox fanaticism.

Six centuries later, the USA was born from all this…

France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Britain, and the USA are distinctions without fundamental differences. The root is all the same: a large German confederation, that of the Franks of the Salt was created, helped by Rome’s better angels, and relaunched civilization on more common sense, hence more democratic, and more technological foundations.

And here we are. And so is China.

What happened? Well, after 13 centuries of various invasions by foreign powers, something that had a seriously debilitating effect on Chinese power and civilization, the Chinese did some thinking in… Paris (where most of the founders of Communist China ended up, except for Mao). How come China was invaded in the 19C by French and British armies, and not the other way around? How come China was invaded so much and controlled by foreigners for 13 centuries? And Europe was not?

Technological-scientific superiority was the answer. Europe founded by the Franks always had the better steel, better horses, mechanical advantage. In the 15C the Bureau brothers, who were engineers, invented the battlefield gun, which was designed to send the English back to England, as it did… But also protected Europe. The Chinese, under Xi, are overlooking one element, though: democracy, which underlays inventivity…

Patrice Ayme

Sexism Leverages Psychobiology Perfidiously. Go Legal to Correct

January 5, 2021

Fighting discrimination against women requires more than unions, thundering rhetoric, and empty hopes. It requires understanding how present day sexism has subtly leveraged some real differences in psychobiology.  

Even absent gross gender discrimination, women tend to be more self-effacing, less loudly ambitious, while doing the steady hard work. Whereas men are more inspirational rather than dedicated to what needs to be done [1]. So men basically tend to have women working for them. There is evidence the difference is grounded in psychobiology [2]. This needs to be so well understood that it could be remedied, as it means that women tend to find glass ceilings in their way…  

Why is the wage gap between males and females not shrinking anymore? Because, the author asserts, the very qualities which make women better workers make them more exploitable. Legal remedies, fiercely applied, is the way out to break that psychobiological-civilizational logjam. Once through it, we can relax…

The habit of women to tend to make less waves consign them to be more easily victims of gender discrimination, as they complain less, and are less feared. And thus more easily ganged up on. In other words, the qualities of women which tend to make them better team players make them more manageable victims. This creates a paradox: the more competent the women, the more they play along, the more they work hard, thus the more they work hard for male exploiters, who advance more, and hence the more blocked and victimized they get.  

The way out of this requires to understand why male characteristic behavior tends to be more domineering, and why the women tend to be more cooperative. The difference is not much… but in a sexist society, it causes feedback amplifying the existing sexism, in a vicious circle. A way out will be to compensate for a while by legally hounding down male excesses… until those can be well exposed, thus socially counteracted…  

Some may ponder why we need to fight sexism. The answer, as usual, has to do with augmenting the species’ intelligence. Removing half of humanity by forcing it into menial tasks makes it more stupid than need be. As women are tighter with the youngest children than men, they tend to have more influence on mental genesis. So, if they are themselves not as smart as they could be, they will get children not as smart as they could be. Not just this, but as half of the competition is removed, especially the half they tend to be most excited about, men’s competitive instincts in intellectual matters are lowered to the basest considerations.  

In these times which are most propitious, and most cataclysmic, intelligence is more needed than ever. So the problem of fighting against sexism is not just about equity, but about something even more fundamental, the justification of equity, the reason why equity is best, for the species. And the justification for equity, from the evolutionary point of view, is that it optimizes the rise of intelligence in the species. 

By the way, this is also true at the level on nations. The more sexist the nation, the more stupid. As observed.

Patrice Ayme

[1] Who was the chief ranger to Yosemite National Park got a PhD in ecology for studying chimpanzees. He wrote the classic book on fatalities in Yosemite over more than 160 years and remarked: “Revealingly, every one of these fatal mistakes was made by a male–no woman in Yosemite is known to have shortcutted and paid for it with her life.”

***

[2] Psychobiological differences between male and female humans are subtle. Paleoanthropology seems to reveal that women brought in more calories than men. Men do best what male lions and wolves do best: patrol the territory. It was found recently that women in some South American prehistoric society did a lot of hunting. The reason why sexual diffeomorphism between humans is small has probably to do with weaponry: a woman armed with poisoned arrows will be, on average, roughly as deadly as a man to predators. Human beings have certainly used weapons for three millions years… Coincidental with the vanishing of major sexual diffeomorphism in humans.

***

Right now, it’s the wild West with sexual harassment and discrimination. A top Google executive, Rubin, was accused of it. Google organized its departure, paying him ninety (90) million dollars. As the New York Times put it in “How Google Protected Andy Rubin, the ‘Father of Android’:

“What Google did not make public was that an employee had accused Mr. Rubin of sexual misconduct. The woman, with whom Mr. Rubin had been having an extramarital relationship, said he coerced her into performing oral sex in a hotel room in 2013, according to two company executives with knowledge of the episode. Google investigated and concluded her claim was credibleGoogle could have fired Mr. Rubin and paid him little to nothing on the way out. Instead, the company handed him a $90 million exit package, paid in installments of about $2 million a month for four years, said two people with knowledge of the terms.

Mr. Rubin was one of three executives that Google protected over the past decade after they were accused of sexual misconduct. In two instances, it ousted senior executives, but softened the blow by paying them millions of dollars as they departed, even though it had no legal obligation to do so. In a third, the executive remained in a highly compensated post at the company. Each time Google stayed silent about the accusations against the men…

The transgressions varied in severity. Mr. Rubin’s case stood out for how much Google paid him and its silence on the circumstances of his departure. After Mr. Rubin left, the company invested millions of dollars in his next venture.”

This all suspiciously look like gang-rape, virtual or not… Basically Google condones rape, on the face of it, and rewards rapists with 90 million dollars. Does that mean Mr. Page, one of the two main plutocrats owning think accused rapists, even if they do not get in legal trouble, should be consoled?

Civilization, hence the law, should not tolerate this sort of behavior.

Want More Civilization? Debate More! That Is: Beat Up Completely!

October 2, 2020

REASON IS WAR BY OTHER MEANS, AND WITH OTHER GOALS. BUT STILL WAR. RUDE IS REASON.
Debate is central to humanity. Debate fosters intelligence. De-bate is intrinsically violent: it is a battle. Our ancestors won, and were not eaten, because they beat up the opposition completely.
Correct logic knows no alternative.
To debate comes from “to quarrel, dispute,” also “to combat, fight, make war” (senses now archaic), also “discuss, deliberate upon the pros and cons of,” from Old French, Thirteenth Century, Modern French débattre). Originally “to fight,” from de- “down, completely” (see de-) + batre “to beat,” from Latin battuere “beat”.

No total dichotomy between reason and passion. There is no reason without passion. Having passion for reason is the only way to have reason.

The noun debate was coined in the late Fourteenth Century in France. These were revolutionary times. Debates were everywhere. These were intellectual times. Once a year, the university of Paris organized a commencement ceremony, and the hooded cortege was so long, it extended from one end of Paris. These were the times when Buridan and his students established the core of what Anglo-Saxons and their white Anglo supremacists followers call “Newtonian Mechanics”. The core was the F = ma law. It overturned 17 centuries of erroneous physics from Aristotle [1].
Buridan, a revolutionary character, physicist, mathematician, logician, and adviser to kings, became rector of the University of Paris… although he had refused to study theology (an iconoclast attitude at the time).

The presidential debate commission, at the request of Biden clan’s, is studying “new tools to maintain order”. In other words: censorship. The US is a republic where the presidents get censored… even before they make it to the presidency.
 
Having “moderators” ask different questions at different times to different individuals who answer separately with their lies, is not a debate.
In France, the sister republic of the USA [2], the two presidential candidates talk to each other across a table. No moderator. They have to moderate themselves. If they cannot moderate themselves, how do we expect them to moderate the world? Or the climate?

The Enlightenment was the triumph of reason. It was the triumph of finding the roots. Reason finds causes of why something is right, and why the alternatives are wrong. Reason does that by beating up those alternatives completely. Reason is war by other means, and with other goals. The goal is to establish supreme logics, those explaining the most significant facts, and demolishing the most significant lies .
Patrice Ayme

***

***

[1]. They also demonstrated, geometrically, the first theorems of differential calculus (with crafty geometric, that is, integral arguments).
***
[2] The French and US constitution were written down within three weeks of each other in 1789 CE… At a time when it took longer than that to cross the Atlantic. For generations, revolutionary French and American thinkers evolved hand in hand. American thinkers and influencers (Colonel Washington, etc.) interacted directly with the French in North America, and the influences were mutual. There was also a pervasive Native American influence: thereafter the American and French republics carried quite a bit of diffuse but crucial elements of Native America. In particular, the “Nature God” (not simply the Christian God) which was in the original constitutional documents of both republics. Christian god made its coup in 1954… but should be eased out… 

Too Much Civilization Can Kill Civilization

September 9, 2020

The French government was too civilized thus lost to the savage, cruel, and self-righteous British plutocrats and land speculators (the so-called “free enterprise”), fully supported the British monarchy: such is the best and most faithful description of what happened in North America, when France, once smartest mistress of the continent, lost Canada, and then Louisiana

There was no slavery in the gigantic continental lands controlled by France, Native Americans were not genocidized, and colonization was very low key. Something similar happened in India. Collaborator Pshakkottai, himself of Indian descent, points out that: In India…”The French were too civilized and lost to the British“. Civilization in excess can kill!

India was conquered by a plutocratic British company, the East India company, gone rogue… And deliberately so, a method inaugurated in Ireland in the 16C, and then pursued in America… And it would give enough propellent to racist German fascism to destroy European supremacy… in a trick which has not been officially observed yet by paid historians from the most prestigious plutocratic universities…

Once in Africa, as a child, I travelled from Senegal, an ex-French colony, to Gambia, an ex-British colony. In a ferry station of the Gambia, on the main thoroughfare, there were two large sets of toilets. I was stunned: a hundred feet to the left were the toilets for “Ladies” and “Gentlemen” of the master race. Far to the right were the toilets of the “Males” and “Females”, the male and female primates whose ancestors had dwelled on that continent for millennia.

When France Controlled North America

The territories around Hudson Bay were lost to the British after the disastrous war of the Spanish Succession, which brought France nothing but losses of territory, including in Europe. That war and his treaty of Utrecht was the (still) much admired homicidal tyrant Louis XIV’s ultimate disaster, the root of which was his genocidal policy against Protestants. Don’t expect to read this in French history textbook, which are still forgetting to cut Louis XIV’s head, more than three centuries after his Hitler-like atrocities…

To be allowed to go live in Canada, French citizens had to demonstrate superior moral standards to the French administration: females condemned for loitering or prostitution didn’t qualify, nor did vagabonds. The English, by contrast, sent their worst, their convicts, often sparing them hanging from a rope. There were plenty of these lowlives in England: whereas French peasants owned their land, however small and miserable, the English did not, but were working for lords. When they didn’t, they joined the cities, and if they didn’t find employment there either, they would be homeless, and that was illegal. So they were deported to America. The same game was played, two centuries later, with Australia. Meanwhile, France, which used to have more than three times the population of England, saw its population advantage disappear: French peasants were keen to leave inheritance to their children, and that meant fewer heirs, so they practiced contraception.

Friend Stephen Jones objected to having such a thing as too civilized a behavior:

Huh? Let’s have less civilization?

Is your premise that civilization itself is responsible for genocides and wars?

I answered as follows: Dear Stephen Jones: That to “have too much civilization” can lose wars is not my premise, but my conclusion. The premise that “civilization itself is responsible for genocides and wars” is an idea so ridiculous that it took Rousseau, that crafty prostitute, to launch it successfully. This tenacious philosophy has been popular with mental retards of academic persuasion, as it enabled them to triumph

Ancient Republican Romans knew how ridiculous the idea was, thus Plebeians, more often than not, voted for better educated “Patricians” to lead them: the Plebeians viewed the Patricians as more civilized. The nefarious mood that civilization was nefarious was picked up by Marx, who advocated “dictatorship of the Proletariat”, and then by various advocates of blood red flags, including Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler (who devised the Swastika, this spider gorged with blood, deliberately so).

And then the mood from Rousseau that civilization was nefarious was amplified further by what US plutocratic universities call “French Theory”. That’s basically the nihilistic theory that there is no such thing as civilization. Only idiots who have never nearly stepped on a snake as I did while running yesterday (I knew it was snake weather, but when I had a momentary lapse of reason, a snake dashed; somehow, while squealing my leg stayed up in the air while the other provided supplementary lift… Snake survived, barely…)… only idiots believe all cultures are identical. Many times I was brought to hospitals in pretty bad shape, in Africa, Europe, America, and thanked the gods of humanity for medical care, civilization… 

***

The French Mission Civilisatrice Was Destroyed By British Slash and Burn:

The French arrived in North America a century before the British. When they consulted with the Native Americans, the French leaders were told that trading was welcome. However, Native American leaders informed Jacque Cartier that settlers were not welcome. Nearly a century later, arriving at the exact same spot as the Mayflower settlement a few years later, Champlain observed that Native American settlements of the land were so extensive that it left no room for French settlers.  Within a century, most of North America was under French control, as “Louisiana” and “Canada”. But it was military and trading control, and the “mission civilisatrice” was in full swing. However the French had not launched a colonization program.

Along the Atlantic seaboard, the English colonies had implemented a genocide against the Natives, as early as 1609 CE:

As Chief Powhatan said:

“Your coming is not for trade, but to invade my people and possess my country…Having seen the death of all my people thrice… I know the difference between peace and war better than any other Country.”

As early as 1610 CE, the two commanders of Jamestown, Thomas Dale and Thomas Gates viewed Native American presence strictly as a “military problem”. Then they decided they couldn’t solve it militarily. As the colonists were about to head out into the open sea, they were met by the incoming fleet of Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr. Taking command as governor, de la Warr ordered Jamestown reoccupied. He plotted annihilation of the surrounding tribes. In July 1610 he sent Gates against the Kecoughtan Native American nation. “Gates lured the Indians into the open by means of music-and-dance act by his drummer, and then slaughtered them“. This was the First Anglo-Powhatan War. The English, led by Samuel Argall, captured Pocahontas, daughter of Powhatan, and held her hostage until he would agree to their demands.

Shortly after, the colonists in Massachusetts introduced slavery in North America (alerted to this by yours truly the New York Times then started their “1619 Project”, to draw attention to what really happened during the foundation of the English colonies.

***

Alternate History: Could history have been different?

To redraw history is complex: the French would have needed to change towards a colonization mindset, and send their degenerates, thugs and derelicts to America… Or their Huguenots… And that was actually attempted in the Sixteenth Century. This happened in the Carolinas (named this way by French settlers). But then the fascist war criminal Philippe II of Spain annihilated those colonies, down to the last baby.  Bad luck intervened: the relief French fleet was destroyed by a hurricane. Or why the USA speaks poorly pronounced French…

Should history be redrawn?

As it is the USA is a giant United Europe. It was founded in blood and gore… But arguably, not much more blood and gore than what was needed to make the “mission civilisatrice” proceed. similarly to what the new city of Rome achieved until it massacred the population of the neighboring Veii, largest and wealthiest Etruscan city (396 BCE). the genocide at Veii was followed, within six years, with very bad behavior “contrary to the laws of nations” say Livy, of its envoy, the Fabii brothers. Outraged, the offended Gauls attacked, routed the Romans, and conquered Rome (390 BCE).  

Were history to be redrawn, it would have to be redone in such a way that the French would have been able to build a strong enough civilization in North America. That would have required tougher ways, those one calls “less civilized”. 

“Less civilized” ways have to be well targeted. If the idiot known as the “Sun King” had directed his energy towards the conquest of North America, instead of destroying the French elite (not just the Huguenots), and making little plots in Europe (war of the Spanish Succession), France could have civilized America… instead of letting English plutocrats (and their tobacco slave plantations) do it. But then Louis XIV was following well established French ways: the French elite had known about America and its “Indians” for more than 150 years, in great detail: a massive “Indian” fair had been held in the early Sixteenth Century, and even the king came. But the consensus in France was that trading with the Indians was fair, and so was the “mission civilisatrice” but not much beyond that was. And the mission civilisatrice backfired as the French-civilized Indians were killed by people of the fiercer sorts (including English land speculators a la George Washington)…

When the Anglo colonial imperialist genociders pushed west, some of their fiercest opponents were descendants of French “coureurs des bois” and “trappeurs”. Resistance to US imperialism in Colorado was led to such French (five resisting brothers were all killed by the US). The same sort of thing happened in Canada. As it happened the French mood and French methods of trading, civilizing, and interbreeding won in the end (but too late for comfort). They were used in parts of the USA. Collaborator Don Kemerling points out: 

“I grew up in Missouri. There are no reservations. The deal was that individuals could own land and attend schools. I grew up next door to an Indian family who owned land, and were our best family friends. My father mentioned their origin a couple of times, associating the skills of the father at hunting and fishing with his ancestry. It didn’t mean much to me then, but I went to see his widow with my mother and grandmother once, and was suddenly struck at the family portrait, which clearly showed their darker skin and associated features.

They fully assimilated, marrying white people. One son was my supervisor at a company where I worked, for a while. There was no mention of it. It was not an issue. I like to think that instead of genocide, there was much more such assimilation than is recognized. Of course, many died of disease too, but I expect that intermarriage strengthened their ability to survive disease.”

Interbreeding indeed increases resistance to disease. American Natives were mostly isolated from the Eurasiatic-African land mass, a biological supercontinent if there ever was one, for at least fifteen thousand years: only a few hardy, healthy, thus non-contagious, mariners came across the Pacific and the Bering Strait. Thus their immune system got selected to be leaner and weaker. European diseases devastated them. Both in North and South America, the arrival of the Conquistadores was preceded by the death of much, when not most, of the population. The same happened after Champlain’s expedition: the area where the Mayflower would make land was mostly empty when it arrived. However there were still lots of Natives alive, and they learned fast. The English colonies had to conduct a systemic policy of invasion, translocation, and extermination. Several US presidents (Washington, Jefferson, Jackson) became great practitioners of the art of cancellation of the Natives.

If he read those lines, the Chinese dictator Xi could say: ‘I told you so, I need to be tough enough to gather enough power!’ Indeed Qin united China by force, 22 centuries ago. However, Qin succeeded because, like Rome, Qin claimed and practiced more than most, the rule of law. The one and only law, human and humane law. 

Xi is forgetting that crucial characteristic. Communist Party forever dictatorship is not sustainable. Ultimately, China failed as a state in the preceding millennium, because it was too dictatorial (the very dispersion of authority in the European Feudal System made it less dictatorial, and less intellectually fascistic: free thinkers could generally find a sympathetic potentate… at least outside of places where the Catholic Inquisition exerted its terror, as a crutch to despicable dictatorship as found in the Iberian peninsula, or the Vatican). 

***

Intelligence Does What Is Necessary Best, Including Violence As Needed:

And last, but not least; ultimately power rests on mental power. Dictatorships are less good at creating mental power than democracies. They make do with theft (see the USSR, Putin Russia, Xi China). But stealing goes only so far: it makes one nastier, not more intelligent. Both the Roman state and various Chinese dynasties found themselves in situations when their mental expertise was not enough to solve the problems which crushed them…

 

Individuals who have been indoctrinated by nihilists and jealous inferior thinkers to hate civilization object to the very notion of “civilization”. However, civilization means to live in cities. Cities have high human density, so they require high human dispute resolution. They require intensive agriculture. This is exactly what the French promoted among the Native Canadians. It worked. The Hurons and fellow nations, adopting French agriculture, learned to live in farms. That enabled the Iroquois confederacy, then allied and armed by the British, to swoop down and massacre them all. French Jesuits didn’t thank the Lord. 

The French leaders never saw the conquest of America as the military problem it was. Their mission civilisatrice failed  for a number of reasons, including the fact France’s longest ruling monarch, Louis XIV was a barbarian and criminal against humanity. But, overall, France was too… Zen. Letting British plutocrats run amok happened, in part because the French aristocracy despised merchants and thieves… instead of putting them in the lead (as Queen Elizabeth already did with Drake and company, who made the kernel of what became the Ireland conquerors, the West Country Men…)

So the verdict? 

It’s all a question of balance. Civilization needs to strike the right balance. Talking to the Nazis or the Japanese imperial military-industrial complex with flowers didn’t work. What worked were bombs. Hiroshima and Nagasaki, we know know, were highly successful… considering the alternatives prepared by the Jap High Command, and, inevitably the Allied (mostly US) High Command, which had anticipated them… without the Japanese surrender following Hiroshima and Nagasaki, atomic bombings next to the beach heads (as planned), gas (as planned) were not needed… Hiroshima and Nagasaki were also warnings to the future: see and consider what happens after atomic bombings. The two atom bombings were just the right amount of craftly designed savagery to hasten Japanese surrender (the third planned Plutonium bombing, against Sapporo, was delayed by US generals… Marshall (Joint Chief) and Groves (head of Manhattan Project: they were obviously not too keen to destroy civilians as if they were cockroaches…).

Where I am presently, in North California, we are experiencing what can only be described as nuclear winter, as the vegetation of California is turned into smoke, under climate change, as I predicted would happen, long ago…

Another thing that nobody believes, erroneously, is that the gigantic nuclear arsenals (mostly in the US and Russia) are of no consequence… When it is known, by anybody having read on the subject enough, that a short circuit can terminate civilization as we enjoy it now.

Some, baffled, may wonder: What is the connection with violence? A Norwegian Parliamentarian today nominated  Trump for the Nobel Peace Prize (for a peace treaty between the UAE and Israel). What is urgently needed is a bit more mental violence… to reduce the number of nuclear warheads below a total number of one thousand thermonuclear warheads… Enough warheads to be ready to detour a rogue comet, or smash an uppity dictator sneaking around with WMDs… But not so many warheads as to be able to destroy civilization… So quite a bit more violence here, now, is needed against the ideas and moods which lead us… to forecasted disaster.

Patrice Ayme   

Can A Religion Be Abject?

November 27, 2015

Are there abject religions? Yes, of course. Their annihilation, or transformation into higher forms, describe the progress of civilization. Nineteen-nine percent, 99% at least, of the known superstitious religions or sects were rejected, or outlawed, and buried in the night of aeons passed, because, precisely, they were abject. (Some non-superstitious religions, such as militarism, or Marxism, or even Stoicism, in excess, can be abject too. But this essay will focus on superstitious religions… which are generally what people have been trained to recognize as “religious”.)

Is there an objective criterion to find out if a religion is abject? Of course. The Romans, who launched our civilization, or, at least, our legal system, taught us that a religion is abject, and should be made unlawful, when it practices human sacrifices. Let’s outlaw religions clamoring for human sacrifices! Our ancestors did it, let’s heed their example!

Rome, invaded and occupied by a Gallic tribe, or others, sacrificed a couple or two… of human beings. The Romans, though, were ashamed by what they had done. Human sacrifice was formally outlawed by senatorial decree in 97 BCE under the consulship of P. Licinius Crassus.

The Romans accused Carthage of killing children. Thus Romans acquired moral superiority on Carthage which created a mood conducive to the annihilation of that Punic civilization. (Whether Carthage sacrificed children is still researched; archeological evidence points increasingly to the correctness of the Roman descriptions.)

Aztecs’ Description Of Paris, November 13, 2015: Jihadist Sacrificing Gourmet

Aztecs’ Description Of Paris, November 13, 2015: Jihadist Sacrificing Gourmet

[Codex Laud, folio 8.]

The Romans prohibited human sacrifices by the peoples they conquered (and used human sacrifices as a justification to conquer them). Romans advertised human sacrifices  as barbaric.

Outlawing human sacrifices distinguished civilization from barbarity, said Rome. Rome was also critical of Greek mythology for celebrating human sacrifices in disguise, and that refined intellectual critique helped promote the switch to Christianism…

The same mood, of revulsion to human sacrifices, presided over the annihilation of the Aztecs. Criticized for their deliberate annihilation of Mesoamerican states (not just the Aztecs), some violently invasive conquistadores claimed they had to do it to clean thoroughly the evil mood of human sacrifices…

The mood of being horrified by human sacrifices originated in Rome. However, human sacrifices were practiced in disguise for centuries (by gladiators’ deaths and the occasional sacrificed Vestal as happened once under emperor Domitian, because the chief Vestal engaged in sexual activity).

Our civilization is Rome Renovated (as the Franks proclaimed in 800 CE). And the next question naturally is: is there any religion today which practices human sacrifices?

Some have tried to deny that any religion practiced human sacrifices. Maybe because of the natural question: Does Islam Practices Human Sacrifices In Disguise?

When a religion organizes human sacrifices, it orders to kill some particular individuals, under some circumstances. As Wikipedia says: Human sacrifice is the act of killing one or more human beings, usually as an offering to a deity, as part of a religious ritual. Human sacrifice has been practiced in various cultures throughout history.”

Is there, today, a religion which orders to kill other people and claims that those who kill other people go to paradise? Of course there is.

A religion which orders to kill “apostates”, “unbelievers”, “pagans”, “idolaters” of food, music and the good life in general, consists in practicing human sacrifices in disguise. Or, actually, come to think of it, not in disguise at all, but full view. The emperor wear no clothes, He is just drenched in blood. Islam also punishes homosexuals by stoning, to death (on the ground that this is the punishment in the Bible), “Adulterous” women get the same treatment: stoning by a crowd practicing human sacrifice.

LOL, Muslims of the Fundamental sort, why don’t you call all your stoning, stoning, crucifixion, and whipping to death, human sacrifices? Because it does not sound good? Because it sounds all too true? [1]

So why is Fundamentalist Islam lawful? Maybe I should ask the question in reverse: is (Literal, Salafist, Wahhabist) Islam lawful because it was not pointed out that all its most troubling practices amount to human sacrifices? Let’s point out, that’s what thinking is all about. And a last question: are those who promote Islam, thus the Qur’an, as Obama had done, promoting what is inside the Qur’an, namely the orders from God detailing when and when the believers are to engage in human sacrifices? And if not, why not?

Tip for anti-terrorism: stop calling them monsters “suicide bombers” or “Jihadists”. Call them what they are: human sacrificers.

But then, of course, one will have to overcome first the mood that simply describing the Qur’an in its own words is racism, as the Common (Plutocratic, Democracy-Destroying) Mood has it. Can reality be racist? This whiff of realism could well end up with the wealthiest paying 93% tax, as they did under Republican president Eisenhower, lest the realistic mood takes over, and various superstitions squirm back to the unspeakable shadows they should have never left.

Patrice Ayme’

***

***

[1] The Shia and Sunni sects of Islam are favorable to the violent, hence human sacrificing aspects of Islam. Others, like the older sect known as the Ibadis, were not, and insisted that the Qur’an was indicative and allegoric, not to be interpreted literally. The point became more saillant after the Fourth Caliph, Uthman, selected what he wanted to see in the Qur’an, and boiled alternative Qur’ans (this started the Muslim religious wars which go on to this day).


SoundEagle 🦅ೋღஜஇ

Where The Eagles Fly . . . . Art Science Poetry Music & Ideas

Artificial Turf At French Bilingual School Berkeley

Artificial Turf At French Bilingual School Berkeley

Patterns of Meaning

Exploring the patterns of meaning that shape our world

Sean Carroll

in truth, only atoms and the void

West Hunter

Omnes vulnerant, ultima necat

GrrrGraphics on WordPress

www.grrrgraphics.com

Skulls in the Stars

The intersection of physics, optics, history and pulp fiction

Footnotes to Plato

because all (Western) philosophy consists of a series of footnotes to Plato

Patrice Ayme's Thoughts

Striving For Ever Better Thinking. Humanism Is Intelligence Unleashed. From Intelligence All Ways, Instincts & Values Flow, Even Happiness. History and Science Teach Us Not Just Humility, But Power, Smarts, And The Ways We Should Embrace. Naturam Primum Cognoscere Rerum

Learning from Dogs

Dogs are animals of integrity. We have much to learn from them.

ianmillerblog

Smile! You’re at the best WordPress.com site ever

Defense Issues

Military and general security

RobertLovesPi.net

Polyhedra, tessellations, and more.

How to Be a Stoic

an evolving guide to practical Stoicism for the 21st century

Donna Swarthout

Writer, Editor, Berliner

coelsblog

Defending Scientism

SoundEagle 🦅ೋღஜஇ

Where The Eagles Fly . . . . Art Science Poetry Music & Ideas

Artificial Turf At French Bilingual School Berkeley

Artificial Turf At French Bilingual School Berkeley

Patterns of Meaning

Exploring the patterns of meaning that shape our world

Sean Carroll

in truth, only atoms and the void

West Hunter

Omnes vulnerant, ultima necat

GrrrGraphics on WordPress

www.grrrgraphics.com

Skulls in the Stars

The intersection of physics, optics, history and pulp fiction

Footnotes to Plato

because all (Western) philosophy consists of a series of footnotes to Plato

Patrice Ayme's Thoughts

Striving For Ever Better Thinking. Humanism Is Intelligence Unleashed. From Intelligence All Ways, Instincts & Values Flow, Even Happiness. History and Science Teach Us Not Just Humility, But Power, Smarts, And The Ways We Should Embrace. Naturam Primum Cognoscere Rerum

Learning from Dogs

Dogs are animals of integrity. We have much to learn from them.

ianmillerblog

Smile! You’re at the best WordPress.com site ever

Defense Issues

Military and general security

RobertLovesPi.net

Polyhedra, tessellations, and more.

How to Be a Stoic

an evolving guide to practical Stoicism for the 21st century

Donna Swarthout

Writer, Editor, Berliner

coelsblog

Defending Scientism

SoundEagle 🦅ೋღஜஇ

Where The Eagles Fly . . . . Art Science Poetry Music & Ideas

Artificial Turf At French Bilingual School Berkeley

Artificial Turf At French Bilingual School Berkeley

Patterns of Meaning

Exploring the patterns of meaning that shape our world

Sean Carroll

in truth, only atoms and the void

West Hunter

Omnes vulnerant, ultima necat

GrrrGraphics on WordPress

www.grrrgraphics.com

Skulls in the Stars

The intersection of physics, optics, history and pulp fiction

Footnotes to Plato

because all (Western) philosophy consists of a series of footnotes to Plato

Patrice Ayme's Thoughts

Striving For Ever Better Thinking. Humanism Is Intelligence Unleashed. From Intelligence All Ways, Instincts & Values Flow, Even Happiness. History and Science Teach Us Not Just Humility, But Power, Smarts, And The Ways We Should Embrace. Naturam Primum Cognoscere Rerum

Learning from Dogs

Dogs are animals of integrity. We have much to learn from them.

ianmillerblog

Smile! You’re at the best WordPress.com site ever

Defense Issues

Military and general security

RobertLovesPi.net

Polyhedra, tessellations, and more.

How to Be a Stoic

an evolving guide to practical Stoicism for the 21st century

Donna Swarthout

Writer, Editor, Berliner

coelsblog

Defending Scientism