Posts Tagged ‘Manhattan Project’

France Started Nuclear Energy, & the Nuclear Bomb Program (in 1938).

January 4, 2018

Abstract: France launched nuclear energy, thanks to one of Irène Curie’s discoveries. This page of history has not been just overlooked, but deliberately twisted into its exact opposite; her German correspondent got the Nobel for it (thanks to the conniving Swedes, anxious to cover their tracks about their deliberate early collaboration with Hitler). This story is revealing in many ways.  Deep down inside, the cover-up was prompted by the difference between the French approach to civilization, and the so-called “Anglo-Saxon” approach to eradication. Actually by “Anglo-Saxon”  is meant the mood of the West Country Men of the sixteenth century, a band of investors who decided to reap all the benefits conquest could bring, using all means necessary. (Deeper students will go back to the (French) Edward III, etc.)

***

Nobel laureates Irène and Frederic Joliot-Curie had discovered artificial radioactivity. They contacted the French minister of war in 1937, informing him that it was possible to make a nuclear chain reaction bomb (he exclaimed:”Pourquoi n’êtes-vous pas venu me voir plus tôt?” By January 1938, the French nuclear bomb program was launched and the ministry discreetly withdrew from public view all the patents on splitting atoms.

The crucial chain reaction had been discovered by Irène Curie. It created more neutrons than it needed, so expanded. Irène informed and debated with Otto Hahn about the chain reaction for years.

Otto didn’t believe such a reaction was possible, initially. Hahn got the Nobel in 1944, for the discovery which Irène had made! After all, Hahn was male and a German (his female Jewish collaborator, Lise Meitner was ignored for the Nobel, being a vulgar female, and, I guess, by 1944 Swedish/German racial standards, not really a German! By the way, Hahn was anti-Nazi, so he didn’t reveal too much of Irène’s discovery to more Nazi sympathetic colleagues such as Heisenberg! The Nazi physicists were stunned by Hiroshima; we know this, as they were all confined in a mansion stuffed with US microphones…)

French scientists Hans von Halban, Lew Kowarski,  Francis Perrin and Frédéric Joliot-Curie had demonstrated experimentally for all to see that uranium bombarded by neutrons emitted more neutrons than it absorbed, the mechanism for a chain reaction (published in Nature, 22 April, 1939). by then Irène was sick (all these radiations).

For the chain reaction to happen, fission neutrons had to be slowed down. It was known that heavy water would do so. The French were given all the heavy water made by the Norsk Hydro plant in Norway (the director refused the considerable compensation a French agent proposed.) The heavy water was ostensibly put in one plane, secretly transferred to another, which flew to Scotland (and then France). The Luftwaffe intercepted the first plane, forced it down in Hamburg, and Nazi intelligence was rewarded by boxes of crushed granite. Three weeks later, Hitler attacked Norway.

When France fell, the heavy water, accompanied by several collaborators of the Joliot-Curies, left for England. (Irene had tuberculosis, so Frederic decided to stay with her in occupied France, as she would get better treatment there. She lived another 16 years, and died from leukemia.)

The British received the French savants with maximum enthusiasm, immediately starting a massive nuclear program (“Tube Alloys”). The king insisted to have the heavy water sit with the crown jewels in the deepest, most secret vault of the kingdom.

Irene was a seriously hard worker, Nobody contributed more to bring the age of nuclear fission. Although she got the Nobel for creating new elements, she certainly discovered the nuclear chain reaction through fission. She was also nearly first on several other discoveries, including the neutro. She said:“The more an experiment is further from theory, the closer it is to the Nobel.”

Later on, during the “Blitz”, the nuclear bomb program was transferred from the UK to Canada, and to… Manhattan (much of it at Columbia University). Hence the name “Manhattan Project”.

(More details are in the new book “Last Hope Island”, or buried in my site. “Last Hope Island” asserts correctly many truths blissfully ignored by US and English supremacists including crucial start-up contributions of France and poland in cryptography and the decipherment of the Enigma machine. “Last Hope Island” asserts definitely the truth that, without the French nuclear bomb program, there would not have been a Manhattan Project, and, in particular no nuclear bomb in 1945).

40 year old anti-fascist Italian Nobel laureate Enrico Fermi (who discovered beta decay, fermions, and the neutrino) became the scientific head of the Manhattan Project. However the input of French and British scientists was crucial. The Anglo-Canadian nuclear bomb project was headed by the French Halban, and stuffed with French scientists (for example Pierre Auger, Jules Guéron et Bertrand Goldschmidt). They informed the Manhattan Project scientists. They also informed De Gaulle, head of the Free French Forces. They even gave De Gaulle a conference on nuclear bombs, July 11, 1944, in Ottawa:”Une bombe, une ville”. (A bomb, a city.) VP Truman learned of the nuclear bomb the day he became US president… So a full year after De Gaulle..

Anti-French hatred, and the will to replace the European empires by an American one, rendered the relationship between the Franco-British and president Roosevelt’s administration so bad, that the collaboration became one way, and then interrupted. US anger was increased by greed: the US capture of three French patents fundamental to nuclear energy (the third patent, on nuclear bombs, had always been secret, but was communicated to the British and then US governments). By excluding and robbing the French, the US captured all the profits of the nascent nuclear industry (in particular, they captured in 1944 all of the Congo uranium production, in theory going to France since 1939).  

Next time Nazis come around, France is ready! 14,335 tons Le Terrible Strategic Nuclear Submarine, 100% made in France. 16 missiles, M51, each with 10 independently targetable warhead of 150 kilotons+ (ten times Hiroshima). For a total of 25 megatons on board in up to 160 H bombs… Aside from these hundreds of “T75 Warheads”, inside the equivalent of the US Trident, France has cruise missiles warheads. France has officially around 300 T75 nuclear warheads deployed, but that doesn’t count more than that in even more powerful, not yet deployed, “Tetes Nucleaires Oceaniques”, “Nuclear Oceanic Warheads”, and cruise missile warheads…

In August 1945, De Gaulle ordered the construction of French nuclear bombs. However, that decision was suddenly opposed by all prominent French nuclear physicists, who, now that the Nazis had been defeated, turned from nuclear war mongers, into pacifists (or, as the Americans were inclined to say “Communists“; French intellectuals tended to be Commie friendly. My own Uncle Daniel Challonge was a Communist, so, although a top astronomer, was never admitted to the USA).

However, the USSR exploded a bomb in 1949, and the UK did so, in 1952. By then it became obvious that the USA and the USSR were dividing the planet among themselves, in a greedy splurging, and France needed bombs to get some respect, or even, a chance of survival (a nuclear device would have solved the encirclement at Dien Bien Phu in 1954; the French asked the US for one; the US, which had helped the Vietminh, just after WWII, ignored the French request; in a striking contrast, to land in Kyushu in 1945, under fire, the US had planned to use massive poison gas and 15 nuclear bombs…)

Franco-American nuclear dissuasion collaboration started again in 1970, when the French asked for US help, and the US agreed to help. (The collaboration has been going on ever since, it is massive, but extremely secret; it involves the world’s largest laser systems in Lawrence Livermore, and Bordeaux, France, to stimulate explosion conditions). https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Histoire_du_programme_nucleaire_militaire_de_la_France

In 2017, the British nuclear arsenal has been reduced to three nuclear strategic submarines, with a reduced number of US made Trident missiles inside. The French Republic has four strategic nuclear subs (with more silent jet propulsion), equipped with French missiles and French bombs. The French Air Force has also supersonic bombers equipped with supersonic stand-off cruise missiles (a sort of weapon even the USA doesn’t have). Moreover the six very large (100 meter long), super silent Barracuda nuclear attack submarines are capable of launching nuclear armed SCALP cruise missiles.

So, at this point, the defense of the proverbial West depends mostly on France and the USA. The other Western powers mostly cooperate by calling the US president names, and insisting that France shouldn’t have a deficit, and should pay by herself the anti-Islamist wars in more than half a dozen countries she is presently waging.

Misrepresenting history is not just unfair to dead people or their descendants. It is also unfair to cognition and logic. The way discoveries are made highly depend upon not just their contexts, but their philosophical environment. It’s no accident that French exiles such as Descartes or Denis Papin (a professor inventor of the steam engine, and the first steam-propelled boat) contributed so much to civilization. If one wants more such contributions, one has to reconstitute similar mental ecologies

https://patriceayme.wordpress.com/2013/05/30/philosophy-feeds-engineering/

The Anglo-Saxon realms tend to systematically underplay French contributions to philosophy, science, and technology. It’s a case of parental denial… The agenda is deeply plutocratic: it enables them to claim that the so-called “neoliberal order” (greed at every corner), is superior to the more intellectual French approach.

Thus the end result of, but also the reason for, berating France and its continental neighborhood, is that greed is viewed as superior to civilization. It’s true in a sense: France was kicked out of North America, although the first French colonies there were established decades before the first English-speaking one. French “colonization” rested on strong trade and civilization principles, respecting the Natives was primordial. That haughty approach proved vastly inferior to lies, holocausts, dissemblance, bloody massacres, and generous distribution of the savages’ lands to European colonists…

It is fashionable, among the PC crowd, to belittle war. This (greatly) Anglo-Saxon habit of recent vintage, maybe a way to disguise the fact Anglo-Saxonia’s realm rest precisely, on oh, so much war. And war of a type one better forgets. After more than 30 centuries of war, the place now known as France, at the confluence of so many paths, all over geography and history, should always remember one mood the Qur’an insists upon: war, jihad, all too often is a sacred duty upon everything depends.

The same French scientists who, in 1945, turned pacific and refused to build nuclear bombs when De Gaulle asked them, were the same individuals who, in 1937, were grimly determined to atom bomb Berlin. There is no contradiction, just civilization, and the distinctions it enables to bear between Nazism and necessary war, on one side, and calm peace, and appeasement, on the other. However, by 1954, it became obvious that it was not towards a better civilization that the Soviet-US monopoly was heading. With Stalin-Beria on one side, and Nixon-McCarthy-Dulles on the other, it was high time to reaffirm a higher sense of civilization! 

On pense, donc on se bat! We think, therefore we fight.

Patrice Ayme’  


Artificial Turf At French Bilingual School Berkeley

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Artificial Turf At French Bilingual School Berkeley

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in truth, only atoms and the void

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Omnes vulnerant, ultima necat

GrrrGraphics on WordPress

www.grrrgraphics.com

Skulls in the Stars

The intersection of physics, optics, history and pulp fiction

Footnotes to Plato

because all (Western) philosophy consists of a series of footnotes to Plato

Patrice Ayme's Thoughts

Striving For The Best Thinking Possible. Morality Needs Intelligence As Will Needs Mind. Intelligence Is Humanism.

Learning from Dogs

Dogs are animals of integrity. We have much to learn from them.

ianmillerblog

Smile! You’re at the best WordPress.com site ever

Defense Issues

Military and general security

RobertLovesPi.net

Polyhedra, tessellations, and more.

How to Be a Stoic

an evolving guide to practical Stoicism for the 21st century

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Writer, Editor, Berliner

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EugenR Lowy עוגן רודן

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Artificial Turf At French Bilingual School Berkeley

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Patterns of Meaning

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Sean Carroll

in truth, only atoms and the void

West Hunter

Omnes vulnerant, ultima necat

GrrrGraphics on WordPress

www.grrrgraphics.com

Skulls in the Stars

The intersection of physics, optics, history and pulp fiction

Footnotes to Plato

because all (Western) philosophy consists of a series of footnotes to Plato

Patrice Ayme's Thoughts

Striving For The Best Thinking Possible. Morality Needs Intelligence As Will Needs Mind. Intelligence Is Humanism.

Learning from Dogs

Dogs are animals of integrity. We have much to learn from them.

ianmillerblog

Smile! You’re at the best WordPress.com site ever

Defense Issues

Military and general security

RobertLovesPi.net

Polyhedra, tessellations, and more.

How to Be a Stoic

an evolving guide to practical Stoicism for the 21st century

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Writer, Editor, Berliner

coelsblog

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