France Started Nuclear Energy, & the Nuclear Bomb Program (in 1938).

Abstract: France launched nuclear energy, thanks to one of Irène Curie’s discoveries. This overlooked page of history is revealing in many ways.  The cover-up was prompted by the difference between the French approach to civilization, and the so-called “Anglo-Saxon” approach to eradication. (Actually by “Anglo-Saxon”  is meant little more than the mood of the West Country Men of the sixteenth century, a band of investors who decided to reap all the benefits conquest could bring, using all means necessary.)

***

Nobel laureates Irène and Frederic Joliot-Curie had discovered artificial radioactivity. They contacted the French ministry of war in 1937, informing it was possible to make a nuclear chain reaction bomb. By January 1938, the program was launched and the ministry discreetly withdrew from public view all the patents on splitting atoms.

The chain reaction had been discovered by Irène Curie. She informed and debated with Otto Hahn about it for years (he didn’t believe her, initially). Hahn got the Nobel in 1944, for the discovery Irène had made! After all, Hahn was male and a German (his female Jewish collaborator, Lise Meitner was ignored for the Nobel, being a vulgar female, and, I guess, by 1944 Swedish/German racial standards, not really a German! By the way, Hahn was anti-Nazi, so he didn’t reveal too much of Irène’s discovery to more Nazi sympathetic colleagues such as Heisenberg! The Nazi physicists were stunned by Hiroshima; we know this, as they were all confined in a mansion stuffed with US microphones…)

French scientists Hans von Halban, Lew Kowarski,  Francis Perrin and Frédéric Joliot-Curie had demonstrated experimentally for all to see that uranium bombarded by neutrons emitted more neutrons than it absorbed, the mechanism for a chain reaction (published in Nature, 22 April, 1939).

For the chain reaction to happen, fission neutrons had to be slowed down. It was known that heavy water would do so. The French were given all the heavy water made by the Norsk Hydro plant in Norway (the director refused the considerable compensation a French agent proposed.) The heavy water was ostensibly put in one plane, secretly transferred to another, which flew to Scotland (and then France). The Luftwaffe intercepted the first plane, forced it down in Hamburg, and Nazi intelligence was rewarded by boxes of crushed granite. Three weeks later, Hitler attacked Norway.

When France fell, the heavy water, accompanied by several collaborators of the Joliot-Curies, left for England. (Irene had tuberculosis, so Frederic decided to stay with her in occupied France, as she would get better treatment there. She lived another 16 years, and died from leukemia.)

The British received the French savants with maximum enthusiasm, immediately starting a massive nuclear program (“Tube Alloys”). The king insisted to have the heavy water sit with the crown jewels in the deepest, most secret vault of the kingdom.

Irene was a seriously hard worker, Nobody contributed more to bring the age of nuclear fission. Although she got the Nobel for creating new elements, she certainly discovered the nuclear chain reaction through fission. She was also nearly first on several other discoveries, including the neutro. She said:“The more an experiment is further from theory, the closer it is to the Nobel.”

Later on, during the “Blitz”, the nuclear bomb program was transferred from the UK to Canada, and to… Manhattan (much of it at Columbia University). Hence the name “Manhattan Project”.

(More details are in the new book “Last Hope Island”, or buried in my site. “Last Hope Island” asserts correctly many truths blissfully ignored by US and English supremacists including crucial start-up contributions of France and poland in cryptography and the decipherment of the Enigma machine. “Last Hope Island” asserts definitely the truth that, without the French nuclear bomb program, there would not have been a Manhattan Project, and, in particular no nuclear bomb in 1945).

40 year old anti-fascist Italian Nobel laureate Enrico Fermi (who discovered beta decay, fermions, and the neutrino) became the scientific head of the Manhattan Project. However the input of French and British scientists was crucial. The Anglo-Canadian nuclear bomb project was headed by the French Halban, and stuffed with French scientists (for example Pierre Auger, Jules Guéron et Bertrand Goldschmidt). They informed the Manhattan Project scientists. They also informed De Gaulle, head of the Free French Forces. They even gave De Gaulle a conference on nuclear bombs, July 11, 1944, in Ottawa:”Une bombe, une ville”. (A bomb, a city.) VP Truman learned of the nuclear bomb the day he became US president… So a full year after De Gaulle..

Anti-French hatred, and the will to replace the European empires by an American one, rendered the relationship between the Franco-British and president Roosevelt’s administration so bad, that the collaboration became one way, and then interrupted. US anger was increased by greed: the US capture of three French patents fundamental to nuclear energy (the third patent, on nuclear bombs, had always been secret, but was communicated to the British and then US governments). By excluding and robbing the French, the US captured all the profits of the nascent nuclear industry (in particular, they captured in 1944 all of the Congo uranium production, in theory going to France since 1939).  

Next time Nazis come around, France is ready! 14, 335 tons Le Terrible Strategic Sub, 100% made in France. 16 missiles, M51, each with 10 independently targetable warhead of 150 kilotons+ (ten times Hiroshima). For a total of 25 megatons on board in up to 160 H bombs… Aside from these hundreds of “T75 Warheads”, inside the equivalent of the US Trident, France has cruise missiles warheads. France has officially around 300 T75 nuclear warheads deployed, but that doesn’t count more than that in even more powerful, not yet deployed, “Tetes Nucleaires Oceaniques”, “Nuclear Oceanic Warheads”, and cruise missile warheads…

In August 1945, De Gaulle ordered the construction of French nuclear bombs. However, that decision was suddenly opposed by all prominent French nuclear physicists, who, now that the Nazis had been defeated, turned from nuclear war mongers, into pacifists (or, as the Americans were inclined to say “Communists“). However, the USSR exploded a bomb in 1949, and the UK did so, in 1952. By then it became obvious that the USA and the USSR were dividing the planet among themselves, in a greedy splurging, and France needed bombs to get some respect, or even, a chance of survival (a nuclear device would have solved the encirclement at Dien Bien Phu in 1954; the French asked the US for one; the US, which had helped the Vietminh, ignored the French request; in a striking contrast, to land in Kyushu in 1945, the US planned to use massive gas and 15 nuclear bombs…)

Franco-American nuclear dissuasion collaboration started again in 1970, when the French asked for US help, and the US agreed to help. (The collaboration has been going on ever since, it is massive, but extremely secret; it involves the world’s largest laser systems in Lawrence Livermore, and Bordeaux, France, to stimulate explosion conditions). https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Histoire_du_programme_nucleaire_militaire_de_la_France

In 2017, the British nuclear arsenal has been reduced to three nuclear strategic submarines, with a reduced number of US made Trident missiles inside. The French Republic has four strategic nuclear subs (with more silent jet propulsion), equipped with French missiles and French bombs. The French Air Force has also supersonic bombers equipped with supersonic stand-off cruise missiles (a sort of weapon even the USA doesn’t have). Moreover the six very large (100 meter long), super silent Barracuda nuclear attack submarines are capable of launching nuclear armed SCALP cruise missiles.

So, at this point, the defense of the proverbial West depends mostly on France and the USA. The other Western powers mostly cooperate by calling the US president names, and insisting that France shouldn’t have a deficit, and should pay by herself the anti-Islamist wars in more than half a dozen countries she is presently waging.

Misrepresenting history is not just unfair to dead people or their descendants. It is also unfair to cognition and logic. The way discoveries are made highly depend upon not just their contexts, but their philosophical environment. It’s no accident that French exiles such as Descartes or Denis Papin (a professor inventor of the steam engine, and the first steam-propelled boat) contributed so much to civilization. If one wants more such contributions, one has to reconstitute similar mental ecologies

https://patriceayme.wordpress.com/2013/05/30/philosophy-feeds-engineering/

The Anglo-Saxon realms tend to systematically underplay French contributions to philosophy, science, and technology. The agenda is deeply plutocratic: it enables them to claim that the so-called “neoliberal order” (greed at every corner), is superior to the more intellectual French approach.

Thus the end result of berating France and its continental neighborhood, is that greed is viewed as superior to civilization. It’s true in a sense: France was kicked out of North America, although the first French colonies there were established decades before the first English-speaking one. French “colonization” rested on strong trade and civilization principles, respecting the Natives was primordial. That haughty approach proved vastly inferior to lies, holocausts, dissemblance, bloody massacres, and generous distribution of the savages’ lands to European colonists…

It is fashionable, among the PC crowd, to belittle war. This (greatly) Anglo-Saxon habit of recent vintage, maybe a way to disguise the fact Anglo-Saxonia’s realm rest precisely, on oh, so much war. And war of a type one better forgets. After more than 30 centuries of war, the place now known as France, at the confluence of so many paths, all over geography and history, should always remember one mood the Qur’an insists upon: war, jihad, all too often is a sacred duty upon everything depends.

The same French scientists who, in 1945, turned pacific and refused to build nuclear bombs when De Gaulle asked them, were the same individuals who, in 1937, were grimly determined to atom bomb Berlin. There is no contradiction, just civilization, and the distinctions it enables to bear between Nazism and necessary war, on one side, and calm peace, and appeasement, on the other. However, by 1954, it became obvious that it was not towards a better civilization that the Soviet-US monopoly was heading. With Stalin-Beria on one side, and Nixon-McCarthy-Dulles on the other, it was high time to reaffirm a higher sense of civilization! 

On pense, donc on se bat! We think, therefore we fight.

Patrice Ayme’  

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13 Responses to “France Started Nuclear Energy, & the Nuclear Bomb Program (in 1938).”

  1. Paul Pieter Kruijmer Says:

    January 4 at 12:49am
    The Curie family has 5 Nobel prices in science.

    • Patrice Ayme Says:

      Wow. Yes, indeed. Pierre, Marie (2), and the children (2). The daughter Eve was also a famous pianist… My uncle didn’t like Marie very much, said Pierre did all the work (Daniel Challonge founded the French astrophysics institute… And was very kind. Only time I saw him with a gripe. I write this out of fairness for his memory, and the kindness and influence he extended to me)

  2. Kevin Berger Says:

    Ah, et pendant ce temps là, Hollywood éduque le monde : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4gbzwKE1oQ0 (cf. la petite énumération vers la fin)…

    Xmen no more superpowers.
    YOUTUBE.COM

    • Patrice Ayme Says:

      The funny thing is that the X men mentioned US, Russia, China, india, Israel… And “forgot” France which has, officially 300 strategic nuclear warheads (but in truth that’s only the TN 75, not the other, more powerful, “Tetes Nucleaires Oceaniques”!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!) So France has at least, from official French numbers, at least 700 H nuclear warheads… Much more than anybody else, but for US and Russia.

      • Kevin Berger Says:

        Kevin Berger Oui, absolument, un petit “freudian slip” aussi marrant que révélateur – et efficace, puisqu’au final, le “logiciel mental” des gens, au sens large, se fait bien plus par osmose culturelle que par éducation formelle. Une coup d’épingle, mais répété 100 fois, 1000 fois,… (Et c’est d’ailleurs pour cela que, 72 ans après les faits, l’on a toujours droit aux films sur la GM2, pardon, la WW2, pondus année après année, pour bien remâcher la leçon)

        [Yes, absolutely, a little ” Freudian slip ” as funny as revealing – and effective, since in the end, the ” mental software ” of people, in a broad sense, is much more culturally-based than formal education. A coup, but repeated 100 times, 1000 times,… (and that is why, 72 years after the facts, we still have the right to film on the gm2, sorry, the Ww2, laid year after year, to well remâcher the lesson)
        Automatically Translated]

        • Patrice Ayme Says:

          Yes, the gist of it is that France is unworthy of consideration, thus anything not centered on greed is unworthy of consideration. Thus Israel (to whom France gave the Bomb) is a great nuclear power from the US propaganda point of view, whereas France, who discovered nuclear energy, shouldn’t be mentioned… precisely because of that fact. That also makes France into God, implicitly (old Hebraic “name” for God: the-one-whose-name-shan’t-be-pronounced)

  3. Gmax Says:

    The agenda of belittling France never rests. Really a page of history no one knows

  4. Fougere Says:

    Oppenheimer was a pure theorician. And a mere astronome. He invented NOTHING. JUST BETRAYED. HE gave the bomb tó stalin.he was a commie. A bolshevik. The rosenbergs were executed in his place.

    • Patrice Ayme Says:

      Just saw your comment, Fougere, welcome. Your comments should appear immediately now except if there is more than one link…

      I am perplexed by your assertions. Oppenheimer actually voluntarily told investigators that he had been told by fellow intellectuals, about a scientist, George Eltenton, gathering information for Stalin at Los Alamos in August 1943… So well, right he belonged to a secret sort of communist cell at berkeley (where I have taught). But Berkeley ain’t as radical as its reputation, trust me…)

      Oppenheimer was a top physicist. From Wiki:
      Scientific work
      Oppenheimer did important research in theoretical astronomy (especially as related to general relativity and nuclear theory), nuclear physics, spectroscopy, and quantum field theory, including its extension into quantum electrodynamics. The formal mathematics of relativistic quantum mechanics also attracted his attention, although he doubted its validity. His work predicted many later finds, which include the neutron, meson and neutron star.[43]

      Initially, his major interest was the theory of the continuous spectrum and his first published paper, in 1926, concerned the quantum theory of molecular band spectra. He developed a method to carry out calculations of its transition probabilities. He calculated the photoelectric effect for hydrogen and X-rays, obtaining the absorption coefficient at the K-edge. His calculations accorded with observations of the X-ray absorption of the sun, but not helium. Years later it was realized that the sun was largely composed of hydrogen and that his calculations were indeed correct.[44][45]

      Einstein writing at a desk. Oppenheimer sits beside him, looking on.
      Albert Einstein and Oppenheimer, circa 1950
      Oppenheimer also made important contributions to the theory of cosmic ray showers and started work that eventually led to descriptions of quantum tunneling. In 1931 he co-wrote a paper on the “Relativistic Theory of the Photoelectric Effect” with his student Harvey Hall,[46] in which, based on empirical evidence, he correctly disputed Dirac’s assertion that two of the energy levels of the hydrogen atom have the same energy. Subsequently, one of his doctoral students, Willis Lamb, determined that this was a consequence of what became known as the Lamb shift, for which Lamb was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1955.[43]

      Oppenheimer worked with his first doctoral student, Melba Phillips, on calculations of artificial radioactivity under bombardment by deuterons. When Ernest Lawrence and Edwin McMillan bombarded nuclei with deuterons they found the results agreed closely with the predictions of George Gamow, but when higher energies and heavier nuclei were involved, the results did not conform to the theory. In 1935, Oppenheimer and Phillips worked out a theory now known as the Oppenheimer–Phillips process to explain the results, a theory still in use today.[47]

      As early as 1930, Oppenheimer wrote a paper essentially predicting the existence of the positron, after a paper by Paul Dirac proposed that electrons could have both a positive charge and negative energy. Dirac’s paper introduced an equation, known as the Dirac equation, which unified quantum mechanics, special relativity and the then-new concept of electron spin, to explain the Zeeman effect.[48] Oppenheimer, drawing on the body of experimental evidence, rejected the idea that the predicted positively charged electrons were protons. He argued that they would have to have the same mass as an electron, whereas experiments showed that protons were much heavier than electrons. Two years later, Carl David Anderson discovered the positron, for which he received the 1936 Nobel Prize in Physics.[49]

      In the late 1930s Oppenheimer became interested in astrophysics, probably through his friendship with Richard Tolman, resulting in a series of papers. In the first of these, a 1938 paper co-written with Robert Serber entitled “On the Stability of Stellar Neutron Cores”,[50] Oppenheimer explored the properties of white dwarfs. This was followed by a paper co-written with one of his students, George Volkoff, “On Massive Neutron Cores”,[51] in which they demonstrated that there was a limit, the so-called Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit, to the mass of stars beyond which they would not remain stable as neutron stars and would undergo gravitational collapse. Finally, in 1939, Oppenheimer and another of his students, Hartland Snyder, produced a paper “On Continued Gravitational Attraction”,[52] which predicted the existence of what are today known as black holes. After the Born–Oppenheimer approximation paper, these papers remain his most cited, and were key factors in the rejuvenation of astrophysical research in the United States in the 1950s, mainly by John A. Wheeler.[53]

      Oppenheimer’s papers were considered difficult to understand even by the standards of the abstract topics he was expert in. He was fond of using elegant, if extremely complex, mathematical techniques to demonstrate physical principles, though he was sometimes criticized for making mathematical mistakes, presumably out of haste. “His physics was good”, said his student Snyder, “but his arithmetic awful”.[43]

      Oppenheimer published only five scientific papers, one of which was in biophysics, after World War II, and none after 1950. Murray Gell-Mann, a later Nobelist who, as a visiting scientist, worked with him at the Institute for Advanced Study in 1951, offered this opinion:

      He didn’t have Sitzfleisch, ‘sitting flesh,’ when you sit on a chair. As far as I know, he never wrote a long paper or did a long calculation, anything of that kind. He didn’t have patience for that; his own work consisted of little aperçus, but quite brilliant ones. But he inspired other people to do things, and his influence was fantastic.[54]

      Oppenheimer’s diverse interests sometimes interrupted his focus on science. In 1933 he learned Sanskrit and met the Indologist Arthur W. Ryder at Berkeley. He read the Bhagavad Gita in the original Sanskrit, and later he cited it as one of the books that most shaped his philosophy of life.[55] His close confidant and colleague, Nobel Prize winner Isidor Rabi, later gave his own interpretation:

      Oppenheimer was overeducated in those fields, which lie outside the scientific tradition, such as his interest in religion, in the Hindu religion in particular, which resulted in a feeling of mystery of the universe that surrounded him like a fog. He saw physics clearly, looking toward what had already been done, but at the border he tended to feel there was much more of the mysterious and novel than there actually was … [he turned] away from the hard, crude methods of theoretical physics into a mystical realm of broad intuition.[56]

      In spite of this, observers such as Nobel Prize-winning physicist Luis Alvarez have suggested that if he had lived long enough to see his predictions substantiated by experiment, Oppenheimer might have won a Nobel Prize for his work on gravitational collapse, concerning neutron stars and black holes.[57][58] In retrospect, some physicists and historians consider this to be his most important contribution, though it was not taken up by other scientists in his own lifetime.[59] The physicist and historian Abraham Pais once asked Oppenheimer what he considered to be his most important scientific contributions; Oppenheimer cited his work on electrons and positrons, not his work on gravitational contraction.[60] Oppenheimer was nominated for the Nobel Prize for physics three times, in 1945, 1951 and 1967, but never won.[61]

  5. Fougere Says:

    WTO killed Oppenheimer? Probably the mossad. Ás usual.

    • Patrice Ayme Says:

      Oppenheimer was a chain smoker who was diagnosed with throat cancer in late 1965. After inconclusive surgery, he underwent unsuccessful radiation treatment and chemotherapy late in 1966.[176] He fell into a coma on February 15, 1967, and died at his home in Princeton, New Jersey, on February 18, aged 62. A memorial service was held a week later at Alexander Hall on the campus of Princeton University. The service was attended by 600 of his scientific, political and military associates that included Bethe, Groves, Kennan, Lilienthal, Rabi, Smyth and Wigner. His brother Frank and the rest of his family were also there, as was the historian Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., the novelist John O’Hara, and George Balanchine, the director of the New York City Ballet. Bethe, Kennan and Smyth gave brief eulogies.[177]

  6. Fougere Says:

    What was the overall cost of projekt Manhattan, in reál $ of2018 ?

    • Patrice Ayme Says:

      The Manhattan Project began modestly in 1939, from the FRANCO-British nuclear bomb program, but grew to employ more than 130,000 people and cost nearly US $2 billion (about $22 billion in 2016 dollars). Over 90% of the cost was for building factories and to produce fissile material, with less than 10% for development and production of the weapons.
      Manhattan Project – Wikipedia
      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manhattan_Project

      The FRANCO-British project went to Canada, and French scientists made De Gaulle better informed about nukes than anybody in US government, besides FDR himself, Groves… VP Truman knew NOTHING! Oppenheimer, Fermi and other scientists knew everything, they were really driving the project…

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