Archive for the ‘Physics’ Category

A TRUTH IS The SUM Of ALL LOGICS LEADING TO IT

November 14, 2022

What is a truth? A sum over all logics leading to it. So even lies, errors, delusions, and emotions can be part of a truth.

Love is good, worth dying for, and how one came to be, but it’s also endorphins and how we survive. Truth and logic everywhere, and universal attractors of logic, in the differentil topological sense, are elements of truth… And yes, this includes errors, not just logical errors, data errors, but also emotional errors. Paths not to follow become themselves data points.

The truth about the concept of energy is itself, as modern physics has it, but all the histories which led to it. It’s not just a question of how we got there as a civilization, but also often how we got there as growing neurologies, personally.

This is why truth, any truth, is hard to get to: truth is always a hydra made of many minds (each logic having a mind, a mentality, and  emotionality of its own). Even a concept as mistakenly seemingly simple as an electron [1].

This is why censors should never be used: they cancel a piece of logic, and thus mutilate the truth.

Censors should never be used, except in the case of war, of course [2].

This general, abstract approach to truth may sound remarkably similar to the “sum over histories”, the path integral method of Quantum Physics. This is no accident, the same object, reality itself, having the same causes. Any physical event, says Quantum Physics is, in some sense rich in computational consequences, a sum over histories, and, as we talk about wave emplitude here, by “sum” is meant a sum not in the sense of adding numbers, but in the richer sense of interfering waves.

In  the parable of the elephant, blind men describe various pieces of the elephant, in many different ways. The point is that the elephant is all that, and more. I propose to replace a set of three dimensional objects (here pieces of a pachyderm) by a set of logical systems. A logic can be incredibly general, and includes all categories (in the mathematical sense of the term).

The truth about an elephant is made of all the known logics leading to descriptions of the elephant, including the history of how its DNA evolved… (As new science will evolve, new logics, hence new truths about elephants will appear…)

But then getting to a truth is flowing along a logic which leads to it. It’s always going to be only part of the truth, because many other logics also get there… But the point is that, to approach a truth, one has to get along with the program of a particular logical-emotional logic flowing on its own like a river.

That means that any approach to truth is, and must be slanted, to use Emily Dickinson’s word.  Most of the time, an immense variety of logics, each represented below by a  particular colored arrow, points and constitute, as a set, what is meant by a particular truth. Truth is an inward and outbound hydra happily squirming in the boiling ocean of imagination made real:

Tell all the truth but tell it slant — (1263)

BY EMILY DICKINSON

Tell all the truth but tell it slant —

Success in Circuit lies

Too bright for our infirm Delight

The Truth’s superb surprise

As Lightning to the Children eased

With explanation kind

The Truth must dazzle gradually

Or every man be blind —

***

[1] Even a concept as mistakenly seemingly simple as an electron in (Quantum and, or Classical) physics is such an hydra (yes even in Classical physics; consider near fields, advanced and, or retarded potentials, etc.; in QFT, electrons have become even intractable: fields…)

***

[2] Censors should never be used, except in the case of war, of course. I listened, read and studied the arguments of tyrant Putin and his obsequious Orcs. I know them well, their lies are parts of the logics leading to the war they lead in Ukraine.

P/S: “Tell all the truth but tell it slant —” muses on how to tell the truth, pleading for delivering truth not too directly. Truth would only overwhelm the recipient. Instead, she advocates to get at the truth in a sort of roundabout way, telling it gently or bit by bit, so as not to shock people with its “brilliance.”

So I gave a very different… slant on the subject of truth, turning Emily Dickinson on her head and transforming her in a drilling apparatus —one of America’s most influential poets weaponized—the poem showcases her skill with vast abstract ideas in succinct lines (in contrast to my firestorming style). Like nearly all of Dickinson’s poems, and many a great thinker’s work, it was not published until after her death. It was written sometime between 1858-1865.

Proof Of NO LOCAL Hidden Variables From Magnets

November 10, 2022

Abstract: Looked at it the right way, the Stern Gerlach experiment with three consecutive magnets oriented various ways, show that there can’t be LOCAL hidden variables. No need, to exhibit nonlocality, for the precise, but obscure logic of the Bell Inequality. The argument here is less mathematically precise, but more intuitive.

***

Stern-Gerlach Magnets (SGM) reveal an aspect of the Quantum, namely the quantization of (some sort of) angular momentum. SGM launched in 1922 the saga of Quantum Spin (it turns out to be connected to deep pure geometry which had been developed independently by Élie Cartan, a decade earlier). Drive an electron, or (appropriate) atomic beam through a SGM, and one will get two dots, one up, one down. Whatever the axis of the SGM [1]. (The SGM is just a magnetic field with a specific linear direction.) 

That means, at the emotional level that, at the smallest scale, spin, the electronic (sort of) angular momentum, or the orbital (sort of) angular momentum, reduce to UP and DOWN. First surprise. (This is actually the case of Spin 1/2, the simplest, such as for an electron; we are trying to learn the most from the simplest case.)

Say the first SGM is vertical (magnetic field along “z axis”) and a second SGM is horizontal (mag field along “x axis”). Call them respectively SGMV and SGMH. So SGMH produces LEFT-RIGHT beams. Put SGMH across the UP beam coming out of SGMV. One could call that beam SGMV (UP). Once goes through SGMH, one will get 50-50 LEFT-RIGHT. No surprise there.

Now say one selects the RIGHT beam coming out SGMH. Call that beam SGMH (UP; RIGHT)… because first the beam went up, then the beam went right.  

Naively one would expect, from classical mechanics, that SGMH (UP; RIGHT) to have kept a memory of its initial source as SGMV(UP). 

That would be to assume that beam SGMV (UP) and its descendant SGMH (UP;  RIGHT) to have kept some memory, in other words that some that the beams through the first SGMV and then the second SGM to harbor some LOCAL HIDDEN VARIABLES.

But that’s not the case. 

Indeed, please run SGMH (UP; RIGHT) into a second SGMV (that is a Stern Gerlach Magnet parallel to the first magnet SGMV… Call that second vertical Stern Gerlach Magnet SGMV2 One gets fifty-fifty UP and DOWN coming out of SGMV2. It is as if the initial Stern Gerlach, SGMV, never happened. (This set-up is presented in Feynman Lectures on Physics III, Chapter 6, Spin 1/2)

So if there were local hidden variables carried after SGMV that is in the beam SGMV (UP), they got somehow completely eradicated by getting into the beam SGMH (RIGHT).

So these proposed local hidden variables do not stay hidden inside the “particle”: an outside agent can erase them…. Thus those putative local hidden variables aren’t really “local” anymore: the environment impacts them, outside of the particle, and drastically so, just as the potential impacts the phase of an electron in the Bohm-Aharonov experiment… non locally.

***

One can rerun the experiment, by using both beams SGMH (RIGHT) and SGMH (RIGHT), mixing them up. Then it turns out that SGMV2 deflects ONLY UP. So simply going through magnet SGMH, WITHOUT selecting a beam (either SGMH(LEFT) or SMGH (RIGHT)) doesn’t do anything: a collapsing of the Quantum space available to the Quantum wave, selecting either left or right space, is what does something.

Conventional Quantum Physics, newish, path integral version, phrases this by saying one can’t say which path has been followed [2] to keep the information SGV UP or SGV DOWN.  Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum (CIQ) simply says that selecting beam SGMH (RIGHT) is a measurement thus collapses the wave function… SQPR says roughly the same thing.

In any case, this eradication of the influence of SGMH on the “particle” by just keeping open the OTHER beam, which the putative local hidden variable “particle” is by definition NOT taking, is itself a NONLOCAL effect, thus once again demolishing the “LOCAL Hidden Variable” concept. (One could say that one beam is entangled with the other…)

The advantage of this conceptual approach is that it exhibits directly the nonlocality… without hermetic complications [3]. It also shows the interest of a more philosophical rather than purely formalistic approach to physics.

Patrice Ayme
***

[1] Wolfgang Pauli in 1924 was the first to propose a doubling of the number of available electron states due to a two-valued non-classical “hidden rotation“. In 1925, George Uhlenbeck and Samuel Goudsmit suggested the simple physical interpretation for spin of a particle spinning around its own axis… But clearly that doesn’t fit what is observed. Pauli built a mathematical machinery which reflected the observed GSM behavior. It turned out to be a particular case of deep mathematical work from the French mathematician Élie Cartan who was born and initially educated in the small Alpine coal mining village of La Mure, and rose through merit in the republican educational system. It’s a bit like taking the square root of space. I don’t understand it, neither did the extremely famous mathematician Atiyah…

It is easy to be blinded by the math. But actually the math describes an observed physical behavior. Now this behavior may arise from deeper geometrical reason 

***

[2] In SQPR, the “particles” are preceded by the linear guiding waves. Blocking some of them triggers “collapse”. By selecting SGMH (RIGHT) one clearly collapses the linear guidance.

***

[3] Stern Gerlach Magnets also directly illustrates Spin, as did in the first few lines above (magnetic field —> two dots!) The Pauli machinery is often how Spin is introduced in Quantum Physics courses, but that, philososophically is confusing the formalism derived from what is observed with the observation itself.

REALIZATION NEEDS LOCALIZATION. NONLOCALITY Gets Nobel Prize

October 4, 2022

Finally! The most surprising discovery of the last two centuries in science was not the Quantum (that had been sort of anticipated by the Greeks who thought they had demonstrated the existence of atoms, literally non-divisibles; the photon is the atom of light…), nor was it DNA (the discovery that there are laws of inheritance is hundreds of thousands of years old, and make ever more specific with time, as humans learn to breed characteristics, etc.).

NONLOCALITY was an enormous surprise because it contradicted everything… even mathematics, come to think of it deeply enough.

The old approach, which had become crystallized by the ancient Greeks was that the world was made of indivisibles, atoms in nature, points in mathematics. So granular nature and extreme precision.

As my own dad once told me on his own, while I described the Quantum to him, in English translation:”the idea that one can get ever smaller and nothing changes can’t possibly be true”.

What NONLOCALITY says is that if one gets small enough, one ends up somewhere else!

This shatters the expectation that smaller is no different. Instead:

1) smaller is somewhere else.

2) Properties and matter as we expect it, do not exist at a small enough scale. REALIZATION NEEDS LOCALIZATION.  

(the mathematics of QM requires this. Einstein and company objected to the notion, as they put it, that the “Moon does not exist if no one looks at it”… That was an exaggerated objection;  there is a qualitative difference between a very small object and a very large one… At least in SQPR; the drawing from the Swedish Academia is also exaggerated… However, it makes the general idea, clear, in first approximation:

This gives the rough idea: the smallest properties, when at the Quantum scale, do not exist until an interaction has occurred. A lot of open question are connected to this: what of energy-momentum? Does it spread all over, or stays concentrated as in what I called Einstein’s Greatest Error? SQPR has an in-between position: most, but not all, of the enrgy-momentum stays concentrated. It is this lack which created Dark Matter and Dark Energy.

4 October 2022

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Physics 2022 to

Alain Aspect

Université Paris-Saclay and

École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France

John F. Clauser

J.F. Clauser & Assoc., Walnut Creek, CA, USA

Anton Zeilinger

University of Vienna, Austria

“for experiments with entangled photons, establishing the violation of Bell inequalities and pioneering quantum information science”

Entangled states – from theory to technology

Alain Aspect, John Clauser and Anton Zeilinger have each conducted groundbreaking experiments using entangled quantum states, where two particles behave like a single unit even when they are separated. Their results have cleared the way for new technology based upon quantum information.

The ineffable effects of quantum mechanics are starting to find applications. There is now a large field of research that includes quantum computers, quantum networks and secure quantum encrypted communication.

One key factor in this development is how quantum mechanics allows two or more particles to exist in what is called an entangled state. What happens to one of the particles in an entangled pair determines what happens to the other particle, even if they are far apart.

For a long time, the question was whether the correlation was because the particles in an entangled pair contained hidden variables, instructions that tell them which result they should give in an experiment. In the 1960s, John Stewart Bell developed the mathematical inequality that is named after him. This states that if there are hidden variables, the correlation between the results of a large number of measurements will never exceed a certain value. However, quantum mechanics predicts that a certain type of experiment will violate Bell’s inequality, thus resulting in a stronger correlation than would otherwise be possible [0].

John Clauser developed John Bell’s ideas, leading to a practical experiment. When he took the measurements, they supported quantum mechanics by clearly violating a Bell inequality. This means that quantum mechanics cannot be replaced by a theory that uses hidden variables [1].

Some loopholes remained after John Clauser’s experiment. Alain Aspect developed the setup, using it in a way that closed an important loophole. He was able to switch the measurement settings after an entangled pair had left its source, so the setting that existed when they were emitted could not affect the result [2].

Using refined tools and long series of experiments, Anton Zeilinger started to use entangled quantum states. Among other things, his research group has demonstrated a phenomenon called quantum teleportation, which makes it possible to move a quantum state from one particle to one at a distance.

“It has become increasingly clear that a new kind of quantum technology is emerging. We can see that the laureates’ work with entangled states is of great importance, even beyond the fundamental questions about the interpretation of quantum mechanics,” says Anders Irbäck, Chair of the Nobel Committee for Physics.

***

Clauser (and others with him, not mentioned by Nobel Com. took entanglement seriously. At the tme it was viewed as a curiosity, not really physics. As a top physicist in my department said:”Serious people don’t do these things, it just gives headaches!”

Personal notes: [0] This depends upon the fact that measuring the spin of a particle in one direction affects the measurement of the spin of the same particle in another direction… which is certainly not the case in Classical Mechanics: if one finds the rotation of a particle in direction x it does not affect a subsequent measurement in direction y…

[1] Nobel Com should have said: quantum mechanics cannot be replaced by a theory that uses LOCAL hidden variables.

And what does “LOCAL” mean? Topology as defined using the speed of light for metric. In other words, nonlocal hidden variables are permitted, and this is what SQPR, a SUB QUANTUM Physical Reality uses.

[2] Aspect thus showed that there was such a thing as a QUANTUM INTERACTION, and it propagates faster than light. The big question is how fast. In excess of 10^23c 

The notion of Quantum Interaction is important. Once one agrees (with Newton) that no interaction can be instantaneous, and once one has identified Quantum Collapse with it, Dark Matter and Dark Energy are near instantaneous deductions.

***

Anyway, here it is: Nonlocality has become official!

Patrice Ayme 

What Is TIME? Why Is Quantum More Fundamental Than Time?

February 1, 2022

A few obvious answers are at hand: The definition of Time shows why Quantum is more fundamental than Time. Trivial, but deep. As observed!

***.  

Time is the ticking of a light clock, a device made of two separated mirrors, between which light rebounds, providing a periodic transfer of momentum, which can be measured. That makes time a local concept. The notion dates back to Lorentz, who used it implicitly, and Henri Poincaré, who defined it explicitly, building “Relativity” around it (19C)… Many years before a celebrated parrot… 

More subtle, and so far unnoticed: Defining time from light, as we have to, there is no other way, makes time less fundamental than fundamental Quantum processes, as light is the fruit thereof, and not reciprocally. This is philosophically consequent as far as the speed of light being an absolute notion. It also means that time is less fundamental than space. Indeed, time is used as one parameter group of transformation in fundamental Quantum mechanics.

Light Clock on the left is THE definition of time: LIGHT GOES BACK and FORTH Between TWO MIRRORS . Time dilation pops out readily. When it moves, it clicks less frequently, and not at all if it approaches light speed…

The speed of light is a local, loop concept. The speed of Quantum collapse or entanglement is a global concept… which can’t be limited in any sense by a local, point-like notion (such as the speed of light).

Both Relativity and Complex Numbers pop out of the physics of light, which then constitute their physical embodiment.

***

The preceding are broad, contextual, extremely powerful (“philosophical”) arguments. They give good reasons to believe that Quantum Mechanics is more fundamental than time, and thus, would violate time.

However, the devil, physics is in the details. Can we check these broad ideas? Is there a violation of time somewhere? Yes!

CPT symmetry changing charge C, parity P, and Time T simultaneously leaves physics unchanged: it is a theorem of Quantum Filed Theory. However CP violation was observed in 1964 (Nobel 1980). That means time violation had also to occur, to compensate.

The preceding is the sort of very general reasoning physics is always driven by. A related example is an argument about antimatter. There is matter around, no antimatter (or, more exactly, ephemeral). According to the Big Bang, the LCDM model, there should be as much of one as of the other. If there is not, as we observe, the only explanation is CP violation. Thus the LCDM model, in combination with very little antimatter shows that there is time violation, time is not a fundamental symmetry. So much for time travel.

***

Notice I did not mention entropy. The second law of thermodynamics says it augments… with the number of “states”, as in thermodynamical states. However, it’s hard to define “states” … In Quantum Physics, there are “states”, of course, even “eigenstates. However those states are relative to a particular situation, the experiment at habd Niels Bohr was (rightly) obsessed about. Now one can make analogies with the surface of black holes, speak about “information”, etc… All interesting, but far-fetched hypotheses by philosophical, or mathematical analogies. I do not want to deride those, as I myself make some… of my own… I claim mine are better, as they rest on clearer and simpler, deeper principles (for example no interaction at a distance at infinite speed).

***

Where does all this want to go? If Quantum is deeper than light, and Quantum itself is enacted by Quantum Entanglement, we get to the conclusion that QE is the real architecture of the universe: both Quantum and Relativity are macro, emerging consequences… Hence the necessity for a Sub Quantum Physicsal Reality, SQPR.

We think, therefore we hope.

Patrice Ayme

P/S: Notice in passing that “quantum” was elevated from my grammar to the level of time…

ENTANGLEMENT AND COMMUNICATIONS AT A DISTANCE: POSSIBLE. It Seems to be a Technological, NOT a Scientific, Problem!

September 24, 2020

 Abstract: Usual arguments against faster than light communications are flawed. Moreover, a way to make such faster than light communications using Quantum Nonlocality is surfacing…

The title will make pontiffs scream, and deride me as beyond the “fringe”. But I am writing for the future, not the past. Pontificating physicists hold that instantaneous communication at a distance are impossible. However, a closer examination shows that there is NO deep, DEMONSTRATED scientific principles at work in the denial that superluminal communications are possible.

Instead the proponents of impossibility of faster than light pretend we have demonstrated that nothing more can be said beyond the strictest interpretation of CIQ, the Copenhagen Interpretation of the Quantum (this silliness started with an erroneous demonstration of the famous mathematician Von Neuman).

Such a matter of principle position is religiously superstitious, not based on experimentally demonstrated principles… And indications are that the preparation of Quantum Jumps/States can de detected, and reversed. If that is confirmed, it is entirely plausible that superluminal communications should be achievable by entangling particles which would have been transported classically previously… far apart, creating a superluminal telegraph.

***   

Doing physics correctly, and, more generally, doing thinking most correctly, consists in establishing what are the most significant facts and how to build the mightiest causal chains. A causal chain is mightier than another if it relates more significant facts.

Faster than light communications between mythological beings were natural. However in the 17C, Dutch astronomer Roemer discovered delays in the motion of Jupiter’s satellites best explained by a finite speed of light. Fizeau confirmed the finite light speed in the lab, using fast wheels with teeth, during the 19C… while the speed of light showed up in the equations of electromagnetism, Maxwell found out, to the point he concluded that electromagnetism was light. 

French astronomer Urbain Le Verrier determined in 1859 that the elliptical orbit of Mercury precesses at a significantly different rate from that predicted by Newtonian theory… in which the speed of gravitation was infinite, a simplification Newton found “absurd” to any “philosopher” versed in the observation of nature (how could there be any other?) Einstein and his collaborators integrated Laplace’s finite gravitational speed idea, in conjunction with the theory of Relativity, to produce a modified theory of gravitation, where gravitation travels at the speed of light.

***

WANT BETTER PHYSICS? GET BETTER PHILOSOPHY!

Out of all this came a mood: no interaction can go faster than light. For weird reasons, all crows crowing the same, and mental confusion, the mentality which evolved in the herd of most physicists was that causality would be destroyed were any communication went faster than light. 

But a mood is no proof. 

Detailed considerations of the logics used by the herd found them coming short. Basically, Relativity is local, whereas communications at a distance are… at a distance, by definition (a philosophical point)… Thus, relativity does not apply, or at least, does not apply as an ABSOLUTE principle in the matter of causality: 

https://patriceayme.wordpress.com/2020/08/25/kill-locality-to-save-causality-and-objective-reality/

This is the Standard CIQ, the Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum is seriously nuts. Here it is above. So crazy many physicists prefer to it it the thoroughly demented Many Worlds Interpretation (MIW), which says an infinity of worlds is created during each interaction. An infinity of infinites infinitely happening? Not serious!

Quantum Physics says there is such a thing as QUANTUM ENTANGLEMENT. The basic reason is that Quantum Physics computes with waves. Those waves wave in various spaces, depending on the configuration of the situation (which are Hilbert spaces, and called “configuration spaces”, because they depict the configuration of the situation). What these spaces are supposed to is controversial (Schrodinger Cat Paradox): we need a theory ordering those spaces, but never mind…

After an interaction in some cases, two particles, Alice (A) and Bob (B), can be created which are “Quantum Entangled” (Schrodinger chose the word “entangled”, in English!) What “entangled” means is that the computation of what happens, probably, with these two particles, A and B, is described by a SINGLE wave.  A measurement consists of analyzing, thus destroying this common wave [1]. THUS, measuring a feature of A creates the same feature in B. The problem is that A and B can be ten light years away [2].

Popper and Einstein discovered this “EPR” situation. Ironically enough, Einstein, one of the founders of Quantum Physics, and an expert in fields, which are local, found Quantum Physics in contradiction with Locality. It is described that Einstein found that “spooky” interaction at a distance. However what Albert said in German was spukhafte Fernwirkung, which rather means “ghostly”, unreal… But in truth if the interaction at a distance didn’t happen, things as simple as angular momentum conservation would be violated. So it has to be there. And it is, experiments have confirmed.

Many self-described mainstream herd physicists insist that at-a-distance communications are impossible. However, their reasoning are faulty. First, as I said the argument that at a distance, faster than light would destroy causality is not correct, it rests on a shallow interpretation of Relativity, and a category mistake. But then those same physicists use what they view as the definitive argument that it cannot be done with present technology:

***

How To Achieve Communications At A Distance: A Technological, Not Scientific Problem:

Suppose we could make it so that a particular feature of A (say spin in the x direction) would always come out the same. Then it would be the same at B, and thus we could communicate. Mainstream physicists say: oh, but God plays with dice, and it is impossible to prepare Quantum States. How do they know this? Oh, because Homo Erectus couldn’t do it, and was a friend of “God”? God or Godot? 

However that is purely a technological question. Scientists at Yale, professor Devoret and his laboratory, have claimed they can see Quantum Jumps being prepared, and can reverse those preparations.  This hints that we may be able to select Quantum States by deliberate action. All what’s left then to do to achieve at a distance communications is to select pairs of particle A and B with such states where we could entangle them. 

Some will sneer this is just one APPLIED physics lab. Now it turns out that as a recent Nature article has it, Quantum Tunneling takes time (it takes no time in strict CIQ). There again, it smacks of inner, SUB QUANTIC machinery at work (Sub Quantum Physical Reality, SQPR pointing its entangling nose…)

***

So the impossibility of communications at a distance boils down to just one thing: the belief that God plays dice with the universe, as a matter of faith (ironically, Albert Einstein was explicitly against the notion, as he invented it, just to decry it; I say ironically as many of the disbelievers in superluminality on principle pretend to worship Einstein…).

How do those believers know that their faith is correct? Because they are on a personal basis with Dog?

Quantum entanglement experiments have been realized between an atom, say, and a photon. The Yale experimenters detected the preparation of a Quantum State Jump, and claimed they could reverse the preparation. Philosophically speaking, supposing the Yale experiments are thoroughly confirmed, as the nonlocality was, this means that the establishment of supraluminal networks is a matter of when, not if.

To go further in the philosophy of nature, this further demolishes the “It From Bit” philosophy of Wheeler and others. Wheeler was a famous physicist and Feynman PhD advisor… and also advisor of the guy who invented the Many World Interpretation…

To be more specific: what I allege above is that the state of the art of the edge of most probable science shows that superluminal communications is becoming just a technological problem (namely finding the right classically transportable materials to entangle and store).

But I am not pretending that that we will be capable of superluminally transport mass-energy. So, if what I am saying is right, a distinction would appear between pure information and mass-energy: information could go faster than light, but not mass-energy… at least for the foreseeable future (many thinkers have insisted there was no distinction between information and mass-energy, because, prior to this analysis, there was no way to transport information without transporting mass-energy).

I fear for my reputation not: Science advances, but the logic of mussels does not.

Patrice Ayme

***

***

P/S: In SQPR theory, the Quantum Interaction proceeds at finite speed. Thus, so will communications using the EPR and prepared states, as suggested above. But the speed will be much higher than light. Of course establishing such superluminal networks will be cosmically difficult.

***

[1] Analysis comes from thoroughly dissecting: from the Greek, ana “up, back, throughout” + lysis “a loosening, a cutting through”… No wonder the deepest thinkers are deeply resented for their thoroughly cutting…

***

[2] Distant particles which have interacted in the past, but not yet measured, remain connected, instantaneously sharing their physical states no matter how great the distance which separates them. This connection is known as Quantum Entanglement, and it underpins the way Quantum Physics turns locality into globality, the infinitesimally small do the grand and cosmic. .

Einstein thought Quantum Mechanics was ‘spooky’ because of the instantaneousness of the apparent remote interaction between two entangled particles, which seemed incompatible with some elements of Relativity.

Later, CERN Theoretical Physics head, Sir John Bell, formalised the Bohm variant of the EPR concept of nonlocal interaction by describing a strong form of entanglement exhibiting this spookiness. Bell entanglement is being harnessed in practical applications like quantum computing and cryptography.

Why Is Relativity Useful? Because Elementary Particles Tend To Be Relativistic

July 23, 2020

When one learns Relativity, one discovers that the physics of fast moving frames is different (slower). But then turns out that the speeds involved are enormous. How practical is this? Very. It turns out elementary particles move very fast. The speed of the electron in the fundamental atom, the hydrogen atom, can be readily evaluated, using conventional kinetic energy, equating it to potential energy from the Coulomb force and then estimating the size of the electron “orbital” from the Uncertainty Principle. One gets 2,200 kilometers per second, c/137. The speed of light divided by the “Fine Structure Constant”…

Nice little mix between Kinetic Energy a la Emilie du Chatelet plus Uncertainty principle, gives 2,200 km/s in hydrogen… Now, of course, in my own SQPR, the electron gets somewhat delocalized, so it all has to be taken with a grain of salt…

Now a “wild” electron will move much faster. How do we know that? Dirac contrived the simplest relativistic wave equation he could imagine an electron to satisfy. That Dirac equation predicted several (then) weird phenomena, soon observed. Even more strangely, that fit the work of the geometer Elie Cartan (15 years earlier). Now we sort of understand or more generally guess, that it has to do with taking the square root of space (don’t ask).

In any case, the success of the relativistic equation shows that, around another electron (say) electrons will zoom in and out close to the speed of light. It’s sort of proof by theory: build a theory predicting unexpected results, find those experimentally, then go back… to prove the “axioms” that way. Inducto-deducto-experimental-logical approach?

Inside nuclei, quarks move at relativistic speeds (that is, close to the speed of light…) CERN can actually measure those.

***

Modern Relativity theory caused an initial stir because it revealed that time was local. There was no universal time: clocks ran slow in a fast frame. 

A statement like this has plenty of hidden theory behind it, so it could cause perplexity to some… “Fast” could cause a problem: does not Relativity say that all reference frames in uniform motion relative to each other have the same physics? So many expositions of Relativity simply say there is no problem, they sweep that “problem” under the rug. 

I love intellectual combat, so I will not. 

A little bit of history for motivation here. Albert Einstein was impressed by Mach, and his Principle. That’s why he said he tried to develop General Relativity. Mach’s Conjecture is that “local physical laws are determined by the large-scale structure of the universe“. That remains a Graal, but I see the EPR, taken the way Einstein hated it, as a ray of hope.

Einstein described the Mach conjecture in 1913, in a letter to Mach: …”inertia originates in a kind of interaction between bodies”…

Einstein may have realized that all he was trying to do was to integrate, in the mathematical sense, the extremely local Poincare Relativity. So the theoretical effort of General Relativity was going from infinitesimally local to less local… But that said nothing global. So the quest should have looked hopeless, but that was all what anybody could think of. (In my opinion Quantum Physics and the Popper-Einstein EPR provides us with completely new conceptology… enabling us to start to hope globally)

Patrice Ayme

BLACK HOLE RADIATION FROM SPLITTING PARTICLE PAIRS (Original Edition!)

July 21, 2020

Did Hawking “Lie” About Black Holes, As The Strident And Shallow Want Us To Believe? Or Was Hawking Honest and Deep?

Ethan Siegel, an astrophysicist who does a lot to disseminate physics to the masses, thinks valorous handicapped Hawking was a liar. Siegel, on fire, wrote:

Yes, Stephen Hawking Lied To Us All About How Black Holes Decay
The biggest error from ‘A Brief History of Time’ continues to misinform generations of aspiring physicists. Ethan Siegel wrote:

YES, STEPHEN HAWKING LIED TO US ALL ABOUT HOW BLACK HOLES DECAY

The biggest error from ‘A Brief History of Time’ continues to misinform generations of aspiring physicists. Ethan Siegel.”

Why is Siegel so insulting and furious? Is his daily bread threatened by the long dead Hawking? Well, maybe… I looked down on a quite a bit of Hawking physics, for reasons escaping common theoretical physicists, but I appreciated his courage. It was astonishing to see him zooming around, at jogging speed, along an extremely busy street full of indifferent American drivers. His physical condition was dreadful, truly horrible, and I never had much tolerance for those who were angry with him.    

Present day’s most advanced view of the material world (physics) is a mismatch of half baked theories, which is supposed to make sense and be experimentally confirmed, the Standard Model (SM). A more general framework is called QFT, Quantum Field Theory, Hawking’s crime? He broke ranks with the gravitas of the establishment, which prefer obscure computations full of hidden hypotheses, to bold conjectures.

…the funny part is that I always viewed Hawking as part of the establishment. So it is amusing to see Siegel furious at Hawking… for disrupting the establishment. Siegel wrote:

”in his landmark 1988 book, A Brief History Of Time, Hawking paints a picture of this radiation — of spontaneously created particle-antiparticle pairs where one member falls in and the other escapes — that’s egregiously incorrect. For 32 years, it’s misinformed physics students, laypersons, and even professionals alike.

Wow.

Why so much alarm, not to say hysteria? What is at stake? The ultimate picture of reality that we have, no less. Or more exactly the fact that we are supposed to respect the physics establishment for having figured out the nature of reality. In truth, they do not, they just want us to believe they did, because their way of life depends upon that. Hawking’s cavalier attitude is unbearable: it endangers an entire intellectual class of mandarins. 

An even funnier part of the whole thing is that the deus ex machina may turn out to have been no less than… yours truly. Yes, as far as I know, I originated the stupid idea which enrages Siegel so much. I generated the idea, not out of super-smartness necessarily, but because I couldn’t understand the more sophisticated mathematics and physics Hawking had originally used to demonstrate Hawking radiation… Moreover I like explicit mechanisms. Somehow, my stupid idea caught Hawking’s fancy (sorry to be that old…)

The alleged crime from yours truly, publicized by Hawking, villipended by Siegel: physics beyond the usual SM/QFT. (DEREK B. LEINWEBER)

The allegedly stupid idea is that, next to the Black Hole boundary, pairs of virtual particles may see one particle fall into the Black Hole, and the other escape to infinity. To this Siegel objects that: virtual particles are not real, so one of them can’t suddenly become real and escape. Even if that happened, as much anti-matter as matter would be emitted. 

The second point is silly: because of matter dominance, an antiparticle would quickly be neutralized by matter and turn to photons.

***

I sent the following to Siegel (which alludes to  metamathematics and (history of) mathematics most physicists are not familiar with):

Very interesting… And humbling. I may actually have been an originator of the problem, around 1980 (I knew very little QFT, but I thought that picture of the virtual pairs was cute at the time; I actually gave a Black Hole/Quantum seminar in Stanford then which Hawking and other world famous mathematicians and physicists whom I knew, attended; I presented that picture, nobody contradicted it, I didn’t think of some of the obvious objections above, nor did any of the prestigious assistance; on some other registers, I was accused of “meditating” too much when i presented some Quantum difficulties usually put under the carpet. The pair dividing “argument” gives an explicit mechanism… the curvature argument is more general… and vague, reminding me of Godel numbers; there are Gödel numbers, Gödel showed… but they can’t be computed. Only their existence can be demonstrated… Using the Axiom of Choice…)

As far as “virtual” particles are concerned, it’s not correct that they have no observable effects: Quantum Field Theory is all about those effects. Now people brandish “Green functions” and say, well, that’s what virtual particles are, that’s it. As laymen have no idea what “Green functions” are, that’s the triumph of the mystification. What I say is that, if it flies like a duck, walks like a duck and quacks like a duck, it’s got to be a duck.

The (real) central question in physics right now is related: whether wave functions are real, and, if so, in what sense (De Broglie’s theories, or something else).

If wavefunctions are real in the sense they can carry a tiny bit of mass-energy, they are not just “computational aids”, then all of physics will change. Big time (Dark Matter pops out immediately).

Many concepts once viewed as magical are now so much better understood that they are fully real. Remember that, for example, “imaginary” numbers (now “complex” numbers) were introduced in the 16C to solve some equations (by a surgeon, Cardano). Now, clearly they can be viewed as directly physical, since they depict so well basic… wavefunctions.

Anyway, thanks for the spirited, and informative essay…

***

The points I made are rather subtle (and require advanced knowledge, few mathematicians-physicists span the entire panorama). I suspect they may have motivated Hawking too. Because he obviously took great risks by contradicting the establishment. (A friend of mine, a Fields Medal, and expert in self-interested navigation, was all too ready to call Hawking a charlatan, I had to calm him down once.)

***

Black Hole 60 million light years away, as seen by the Earth spanning Event Horizon telescope. The radiation one sees in this picture is caused by classical, very well understood physics… The dotted line gives an idea of the size of this galactic size Black Hole…

Let’s quote the honorable Professor Siegel because he describes the situation well (even the non-fully enlightened have their uses…): 

“What Hawking would have had us imagine is a relatively simple picture. Start with a black hole: a region of space where so much mass has been concentrated into such a small volume that, within it, not even light can escape. Everything that ventures too close to it will inevitably be drawn into the central singularity, with the border between the escapable and inescapable regions known as the event horizon.

Now, let’s add in quantum physics. Space, at a fundamental level, can never be completely empty. Instead, there are entities inherent to the fabric of the Universe itself — quantum fields — that are always omnipresent. And, just like all quantum entities, there are uncertainties inherent to them: the energy of each field at any location will fluctuate with time. These field fluctuations are very real, and occur even in the absence of any particles.

A visualization of QCD illustrates how particle/antiparticle pairs pop out of the quantum vacuum for very small amounts of time as a consequence of Heisenberg uncertainty. The quantum vacuum is interesting because it demands that empty space itself isn’t so empty, but is filled with all the particles, antiparticles and fields in various states that are demanded by the quantum field theory that describes our Universe. Put this all together, and you find that empty space has a zero-point energy that’s actually greater than zero. 

In the context of quantum field theory, the lowest-energy state of a quantum field corresponds to no particles existing. But excited states, or states that correspond to higher-energies, correspond to either particles or antiparticles. One visualization that’s commonly used is to think about empty space as being truly empty, but populated by particle-antiparticle pairs (because of conservation laws) that briefly pop into existence, only to annihilate away back into the vacuum of nothingness after a short while.

It’s here that Hawking’s famous picture — his grossly incorrect picture — comes into play. All throughout space, he asserts, these particle-antiparticle pairs are popping in and out of existence. Inside the black hole, both members stay there, annihilate, and nothing happens. Far outside of the black hole, it’s the same deal. But right near the event horizon, one member can fall in while the other escapes, carrying real energy away. And that, he proclaims, is why black holes lose mass, decay, and where Hawking radiation comes from.”

Now for little Ethan Siegel’s hurt feelings:

That was the first explanation that I, myself a theoretical astrophysicist, ever heard for how black holes decay. If that explanation were true, then that would mean:

Hawking radiation was composed of a 50/50 mix of particles and antiparticles, since which member falls and which one escapes will be random,

that all of the Hawking radiation, which causes black holes to decay, will be emitted from the event horizon itself, and that every quantum of emitted radiation must have a tremendous amount of energy: enough to escape from almost, but not quite, being swallowed by the black hole.

Of course, all three of those points are not true. Hawking radiation is made almost exclusively of photons, not a mix of particles and antiparticles. It gets emitted from a large region outside the event horizon, not right at the surface. And the individual quanta emitted have tiny energies over quite a large range.”

*** 

When I first read this fulminating discourse from Siegel, I was taken aback that I had been that stupid for so long, by not seeing the splendid objections Siegel brandished. However, on second thoughts, there is nothing “of course” about any of these objections. Each of Siegel’s screams can be countered by cool rationality. And I had thought about them at the time, I had just forgotten them, as physicists and mathematicians seemed very uninterested by them at the time (I was surprised when Hawking used the argument). So here are my counter-arguments:

  1. Particles emitted at the event horizon, would be right away interacting with fields outside  of the event horizon, and soon half would turn into photons from antimatter annihilation, as I said already. Much of the rest of the energy would do the same, as most particles would stay gravitational prisoners… whereas photons, however shifted towards the red, would escape at the speed of light.
  2. The rest would have to climb out of the tremendous gravitational well, so would lose most of their energy… over quite a range, according to whatever collisions they experience. 

Another point is that the mechanism would become more prominent the smaller the Black Hole gets. So I stand by my cute idea, and command Hawking for his courage… To have presented it (implicitly) as his, at the risk of earning the contempt of his obscurantist peers. 

Patrice Ayme

***

***

P/S: I will develop this in other essays, but it’s no coincidence Einstein couldn’t learn Quantum Field Theory. The whole thing probably just looked to him like incantations with magic formulas. He tried for three weeks, taught by ehrenfest… Then gave up. Albert was smart enough to find the whole thing extremely fishy, with extremely deep errors hidden inside. Make no mistake: I am not saying QFT makes no sense. Neither to do I pretend Einstein was right in all ways. Far from it: QFT treats particles as extended, so does SQPR, and Einstein had made the error of believing otherwise

Large pieces of QFT make total sense, are glorious, obviously correct… Actually the whole point of my particle pairs-Black Hole imagery is to take some of QFT more seriously than the QFTists themselves take it…  Hey!

***

P/S 2: Sub Quantum Physical Reality SQPR fleshes out QFT. The spurious distinctions between virtual and non-virtual particles disappear… So does much of the over-inflated metaphysics of Relativity, and QFT.

 

Ideology Is Always Top Down, And the Influence Can Be Incredibly Subtle

July 16, 2020

WHY THE ROMANS COULDN’T THINK DEEP AND THE SICK COPENHAGEN INTERPRETATION OF THE QUANTUM IS RACIST

What ideology matters? Does Low Lives Ideology matter? No, never! What matters is High Lives Ideology! Nietzsche covered that one when he focused on the sheeple of Christianism versus the ‘blonde beast” mentality of their lords. By “blonde beast”, Nietzsche didn’t mean Viking but the lions found on many coats of arms of the Middle Ages. Nietzsche observed that the morality of the European aristocracy was closer to the kill them all of lions rather than the love them all, professed by Jesus (when he was in a good mood). 

We have plenty of proof of the giant chasm between the “flock” mentality the folks were immersed in, preached by the Lords, and what the Lords practiced: consider the Crusades, the Cathars, the Jacqueries in France, when the worst atrocities happened (on both sides). The European aristocracy was one, not just morally, and intellectually, but even genetically, as they intermarried heavily, all the way from Madrid and London to Kiev and Moscow.

Christianism was imposed top down by the Roman emperors, starting with the tyrant Constantine, killer of his own family. It worked for (much of) the Roman plutocracy, which succeeded to merge with barbarians. 

The supreme trick for the elite, is to present as coming from the bottom what actually came from the top, the elite itself.

Lenin in a bad way. You would look like that too, if you set to help We The People, and then discovered you were instrumentalized by the fascist Kaiser Wilhelm, and the lethal thug Stalin…

Some who know history, superficially, may roll out the Soviets (Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin). Surely, they would say, that was an ideology coming from the bottom, the Russian proletariat! Well, not so: it’s the Kaiser Whilhelm II and his goons who enabled Lenin and his entourage to be injected from Switzerland to Russia. They had a deal. In 1917, Lenin gave a gigantic piece of Western Russia (some Poland, Ukraine) to the German dictatorship. This gave the fascist German military enormous resources and enabled them to bring all their forces to bear on the Western Front. So, actually, Sovietism was an ideology serving German fascism (it showed up again in 1939-1941) with the official alliance between the USSR and Hitler, which enabled the latter to crush the French Republic (the Nazi army was fully fueled by Soviet oil). 

Criticizing (real, yet secondary and mostly imaginary) “systemic racism”, is another example of an ideology imposed from the top to enable the pursuit of the rule of the present dominants, the (mostly) US plutocrats.

How does this work? Basically the dominants control the military, the police, justice, and, most important of all, the media. Roman media became fascist imperial under Augustus: he killed, exiled or defanged anybody not agreeing with him. The self-dominated “Senatus Princeps” (First in the Senate) fabricated for himself a compliant Senate. He defeated the spirit of republican opposition, by claiming that he had reinstituted the Republic. After Augustus died, nobody in the Senate knew what to do, and opposition was nonexistent (opponents had been killed, decades prior). After several weeks of indecisions, Tiberius, adoptive son of Augustus, and chief of the army, was called to duty, by said Senate.

After the “Year of the Four Emperors”, a messy and short struggle for power, the most powerful general took control, Vespasianus. Craftily, Vespasian adopted Josephus, a Jewish general he had captured. Between Saint Paul (another Jew who was a Roman citizen and prosecutor), the legend of Christ got written down. Morality:”give to Caesar what is to Caesar”, “turn the other cheek”, “love your neighbor as yourself”, “embrace passivity and martyrdom”, “hate non-believers”… and make allusions that it would be best if non-believers could be dealt with the sword. Also burn books and libraries, an exercise Saint Paul was very proud to have launched.

To cover its track, plutocratic Christianism exaggerated the martyrdom it suffered at the hands of Nero, Diocletian and Galerius (3,000 dead in the latter case). The persecution under Marcus-Aurelius is generally ignored, because the “stoicism” preached by that emperor goes hand in hand with Christianism: it also persuades the sheeple to lie supine and enjoy its living death, for the wisdom therein… 

***

The Topmost, Very Highest Ideology Rests On Moods Imposed On The Lowest 

Most of the preceding section one may have read somewhere else. Now for something completely new. Why didn’t the Romans develop science or high intellect? Because the Romans were not just too fascist politically (especially after Tiberius Gracchus’ unfortunate adventure). The Romans were also INTELLECTUAL FASCISTS. It’s synchronized: too much political fascism is only possible with enough intellectual fascism. Intellectual fascism rests on a few axioms, a few idea, a few moods, a few emotions… all driven by the desire of limiting curiosity. 

So destroy the statues instead of understanding how they got there. This “Damnatio Memoriae” was a Roman speciality: it prevented to examine the past, because one didn’t know that it ever existed… I do not want to make the Romans more creative than they were: damnatio memoriae (damning memory) was actually in Ancient Egypt, aeons before Rome was created…

Science rests on curiosity and common sense. Creating more science means creating more of the curious spirit, and attending neurohormones, and much more common sense. 

This is where CIQ, the Copenhagen Interpretation of the Quantum, comes into play. The theory is absurd. Why? It takes Einstein’s localization hypothesis at face value (nobody ever denounces it, because Einstein is a sacred cow). 

However, all the Quantum Field Theory (QFT) computing depends upon Quantum wavefunctions which are spread out. The Born Hypothesis (BH) is that wavefunctions have only computational merit. No “reality” (or “element of reality” as Einstein said) are attributable to them, whatsoever. 

For me, philosophically, if something enables me, systematically, to predict reality, it is real. But not so for partisans of the CIQ. For them, Quantum wavefunctions are not real… Yet somehow, they are… systemic. They have something in front of their face, it does stuff, but then they claim it doesn’t exist. Many of the same physicists had Nazism in front of their cae, Nazism did stuff, but, still, they somehow denied it existed (Heisenberg, the one full of uncertainty is an example of this; he directed the Nazi effort to build a bomb… Thankfully he was less good a physicist than Irene Joliot-Curie who persuaded the French War Ministry in January 1938, that a nuclear bomb could be made; when the project had to flee Europe, it went to… Manhattan…)  

This idea that, if something systematically enables to compute something else, it is real, has recently been understood by the masses: it is actually the theory behind “systemic racism”: if someone is of color, that person has more trouble with the law, quality employment, healthcare, etc. So there is a causality there.

Hence one can see that the dominant ideology in physics denied the reality of the most basic causality, the most basic evidence. Thus top intellectuals could deny Nazism and “systemic racism” while believing that they were infinitely subtle…  

Patrice Ayme          

 

How To Generate Matter Waves In Large Objects

June 14, 2020

L = h/P is the De Broglie hypothesis, where L is the wavelength of the matter wave, P is the momentum of the object, and h is Planck constant. 

The relationship was known in the case of the photon [1].

What I viewed as a mystery: the validity of the formula for any object. It seemed to me to make all particles, and all masses sort of fundamental. How could that be? Meanwhile, the mystery of mass got thicker. I heard of the Higgs, it’s mostly a gimmick to create mass out of friction from an assumed universal field, now supposedly observed… for particles which in the Standard Model which wouldn’t otherwise have any. How much of the mass of a nucleon is produced by simply harnessing E = mcc is unknown to me, but could be most of it.

De Broglie matter waves, simplest version. In general p, the momentum is relativistic, and “mv” is just the slow poke version of it… So all I am saying is that the zillions of linear parts of all these waves add up… OK, I should make my own drawing, severely more sophisticated: this one gives the impression that the linear tails (the outside, guiding parts) of the wave is nonlinear… In SQPR, the center is highly nonlinear, and the outer, guiding part ready to transform itself in Dark Matter, given the right geometry

Then SQPR appeared. In SQPR, waves are everything, but they are additive, nonlinear… And they are all what space is. 

So visualize an object O. It’s made of a zillion elementary particles, call that number Z, each actually an elementary wave, expanding, entangled, then nonlinearly collapsing, then expanding again after that interaction, entangled with all over, etc. In the average, though, the expanding quantum waves of all these objects will have momentum p/Z and mass, m/Z. This clarity of mind escapes Quantum Field Theorists (QFTists), because their version of space is haunted by so-called “vacuum energy”… for which there is only anti-evidence (namely the universe exists; if vacuum energy existed, the universe won’t, because it would be collapsed all the time! [2])

Now SQPR says those linear parts all add up, as an average p/Z and constitute then a mass of m, momentum p. It’s all very simple, but now it sounds intuitive… A return of intuition in physics, would be welcome, instead of complete insanity…

Patrice Ayme

***

***

[1]. Planck had discovered E = hF, where F is the frequency of light. Einstein proposed to generalize it to quanta of light (“Lichtquanten”) in flight, and explained immediately the photoelectric effect that way (he got the Nobel for that; by the way, SQPR immediately explains Dark Matter)

***

[2] One evidence for the vacuum energy is the “CASIMIR EFFECT”… which is thoroughly demonstrated in very practical nanophysics. I explained once how to make it produce much energy. Nobel S. Weinberg  in his book on Gravitation rolls out Casimir as a proof of vacuum energy (instead, I roll out the universe to disprove vac energy!) However, it turns out one doesn’t need the full vac energy to explain Casimir…

See:

The Casimir Effect and the Quantum Vacuum
R. L. Jaffe
Center for Theoretical Physics,
Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics
Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139
Abstract.
In discussions of the cosmological constant, the Casimir effect is often invoked as decisive
evidence that the zero point energies of quantum fields are “real”. On the contrary, Casimir effects
can be formulated and Casimir forces can be computed without reference to zero point energies.
They are relativistic, quantum forces between charges and currents. The Casimir force (per unit
area) between parallel plates vanishes as α, the fine structure constant, goes to zero, and the standard
result, which appears to be independent of α, corresponds to the α → ∞ limit.

SQPR has its own version of the vacuum: it’s truly empty, devoid of mass-energy. All the space that is physical is made of matter waves… Matter waves and pieces thereof all have mass-energy, making them real.

FTL: Faster Than Light Communications Don’t Violate Causality

April 30, 2020

Many physicists take for granted that if Faster Than Light (FTL) communications were possible some signals could be received earlier than they have been emitted. That’s not correct. “Proofs” that Faster Than Light would demolish causality rest on a confusion between causality and temporality. Time is affected by motion, causality isn’t.

***

LIGHT/GRAVITY OBSERVED SIMULTANEOUSNESS OF EVENTS IS SPEED DEPENDENT:

Let’s call the Fast Frame FF and the Inertial Frame IF. The great result of Poincaré is that if a clock in Inertial Frame is accelerated to Fast Frame, once it sits still in FF, it will run slow (it’s called the “Twin Paradox”). 

Henri Poincaré pointed out as early as 1898 (Einstein was 19), events which are VIEWED AS simultaneous in the Fast Frame FF may not be VIEWED AS so in the Inertial Frame IF  depending on the exact motion of FF. (If light behaved as sound, it would be obvious why: sometimes sound takes longer to catch up. It’s basically the same mathematical idea.)

The fact events look simultaneous, or not, depends upon defining simultaneity with light speed, and that c is finite. The sketch above is ROUGHLY correct… But not really, because it contains implicitly a subtlety which needs to come to the fore to be fully correct: the LOCAL time inside the train is NOT the same as the LOCAL time on the platform watching the train… so the detail of the drawing is not as simple as the first sketch… But the basic concept remains: light will be seen as hitting the left side of the carriage first if the carriage is moving towards the right…

It’s very simple. Let’s visualize IF and FF the former as a train station, the second as a train, rushing by. Consider the two extremities of a carriage, A and B, call M the middle of the carriage. Then shine a light at M. From inside the carriage, one can see (say by reflecting the light on mirrors), that the light arrived at A and B simultaneously. 

However, from the outside, as seen from the Inertial Frame, the train station, as the carriage is going towards M, the light is going to hit A first, and B, later. 

The proof rests only on the speed of light being finite (something we have known since studying the moons of Jupiter in the Seventeenth Century. 

So simultaneousness of events having to do with light as defined in the Inertial Frame will be different from simultaneousness of events having to do with light in the Fast Frame… As seen with light!  The order of some events may appear one way in IF, and the opposite in FF. If one defines causality as temporal ordering, one is lost. All of this was discovered by Henri Poincaré… and probably why Henri proposed to call this “the theory of relativity”… Relativity of light events as seen by light. All very enlightening, but all too light.

Now here is a philosophical question: suppose we have an instantaneous way to communicate when things are happening. Would that redefine simultaneity? Of course. now in the real world, spacetime is curved, and light goes neither straight, nor constantly, and may even not go anywhere at all:

Spacetime is curved, and in other words, light is neither straight nor constant. More precisely this means that parallel transport along a ray of light brings a rotation of frames. Also shrinkage in various dimensions.

At first sight, physics locked the notion of time down. Indeed, at first sight…. we have only two long range interactions: gravity and electromagnetism (light). Moreover because of Energy = Mass (Henri Poincaré, 1899, La Sorbonne, Paris), they go at the same speed.

At second sight, we have Quantum Entanglement… Yes, I know, many physicists say Quantum Entanglement can’t be an interaction, because it would go faster than light, and that would violate causality. They may as well quote the Bible… It’s faith on their part, and dogma, not science…

Moreover, time, as defined by light clocks is only local, a notion living in the tangent space to spacetime. An explicit illustration of that is local time in a GPS satellite is not Earth time, and modifications to clocks have to be made constantly.

In this real world, defining time only with light is not the only problem. Wait, some will say, do you have any better than light and gravitation to tell us of distant events? Of course, we do: Quantum Entanglement. In my vision of the matter, matter, and space are literally created by Quantum Entanglement. And that goes at a faster clip than electromagnetism and gravity, or things would fall apart.

Patrice Ayme


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